Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 4, pp. 584−588.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © D.A. Zherebtsov, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 4, pp. 566−570.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Properties of Solutions Formed by Water, Furfuryl Alcohol,
and Poly(Ethylene Glycol) (10) Isooctyl Phenol Ether
D. A. Zherebtsov
South-Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia
Received November 9, 2011
Abstract—Original measuring cell was used to study the electrical conductivity, viscosity, and light transmis-
sion of the ternary system constituted by water, furfuryl alcohol, and OP-10 foaming agent at 20°C. The optical
characteristics of the solutions and formation of emulsions and liquid-crystalline phases were examined.
The intensively studied water–oil–surfactant ternary
systems [1–6] can form emulsions, microemulsions,
and lyotropic liquid-crystalline phases in a certain
concentration range, which is important for development
of new cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.
Furfuryl alcohol (FA) is known for its ability to
form a polymer that gives, when being calcined without
access of oxygen, glassy carbon in up to 65% yield .
It would be expected that introduction of a surfactant
and water into FA would lead to ordering of solutions of
this kind to give liquid-crystalline phases that can form,
on being polymerized and calcined, nanoporous glassy
carbon tubes. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the
range of compositions forming liquid-crystalline phase
in the suggested system.
Nonionogenic surfactants are particularly convenient
in preparation of solutions based on organic liquids
because ionogenic surfactants are poorly soluble in low-
polarity ﬂ uids. The OP-10 foaming agent [poly(ethylene
glycol) (10) isooctyl phenol ether C
] is a widely
industrially used nonionogenic surfactant. Properties of
its solutions are important for mining-and-concentrating,
metal-processing, textile, and other industries.
A distinctive feature of the installation used in  is
that it combines attachments for solution preparation and
homogenization and simultaneous measurements of the
electrical conductivity, light transmission, and viscosity
in a single cell. The cell makes it possible, after the
three properties of a solution of a certain concentration
are measured, to introduce, if necessary, one or several
of its components, homogenize the solution, and
measure properties of a solution of new composition.
In the present study, the cell was successfully used to
construct an isothermal section of the water–FA–OP-
10 constitution diagram. The cell and the procedure
employing this cell make it possible to take small-
volume samples of solutions for measurements of other
properties of the solutions, e.g., their refractive index.
A sufﬁ ciently large volume of the solution, which
remains after measurements, enables determination of
The light transmission of the solutions was determined
by introducing the cell into a FEK-56 double-beam
photocolorimeter. To raise the intensity of the light ﬂ ux,
measurements were made under exposure to white light
from a standard incandescent lamp without light ﬁ lters.
The refractive index of the solutions was determined
with an MLW Abbe refractometer (Germany) at 20°C
with an error of 0.0002.
Three binary systems based on the components and
two sections of the ternary system: OP-10–(48 wt %
O–52 wt % FA solution) and OP-10–(75 wt %
O–25 wt % FA solution), were chosen for study in