PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS BASED ON SILICON CARBIDE
I. L. Shkarupa,
L. A. Plyasunkova,
M. I. Shkarupa,
and D. A. Klimov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 6, pp. 26 – 28, June, 2009.
Original article submitted December 11, 2008.
Research has been done on the microstructure, lattice parameters, and tribological characteristics of materials
based on silicon carbide. It has been found that the most promising material from the viewpoint of tribology is
silicon carbide made with phenol binding agent.
Keywords: silicon carbide, microstructure studies, tribological studies, test methods.
Recently, ceramics have been widely recognized as a
new class of advanced materials with a high level and unique
combination of physicomechanical characteristics, which
differ favorably from metals and alloys . The strong ce-
ramic based on silicon carbide is a promising tribological
material, since it has good mechanical and thermophysical
properties, as well as stable hardness and strength over a
wide temperature range [2, pp. 108 – 128]. Materials based
on SiC are used in the aerospace, defense, metallurgical, and
general engineering industries, as well as in chemical engi-
neering and medical technology . At the Technology
ONPP, research has been done on the general and
physicomechanical properties of components made from re-
action-bonded silicon carbide after tribological tests .
To perform the tests whose results are given here, blanks
were prepared by semidry pressing with initial density
. After pressing the blanks were annealed in a
cover of wood charcoal, which reduced the carbon loss, and
correspondingly produced reactive sintering with a lower
free silicon content. The maximum preliminary firing tem
perature was 900EC with a rate of increase of 250EC/h, hold
time at maximum temperature 3 h.
A pyramid of blanks was laid out on a support of silicon
carbide covered by carbon fibers for siliciding. At the top of
the pyramid there was a crucible containing silicon carbide
with a silicon content constituting 0.7 of the blank mass. The
maximum siliciding temperature was 1615°C with a rate of
increase of 400°C/h and a hold at the maximum temperature
of 1.5 h. Five specimens (Nos.1–5)were used in examining
the general and physicomechanical properties.
Specimen No. 1 had a basic charge composition: a mix
ture of SiC powder, carbon black, and starch binder, with the
specimen covered by a diamond-type layer. The other speci-
mens differed from No. 1 as follows: in No. 2, the charge
was doped with boron compounds; specimen No. 3 was
made with a phenol binding agent; No. 4 additionally con-
tained nanodiamonds in the charge; and No. 5 additionally
had nanopowder of finely divided technical carbon in the
The apparent density and open porosity were determined
by water uptake: the mass of a dry specimen was determined
by weighing in air, while the pore volume was determined by
weighing a specimen saturated with water; and the specimen
volume was determined by hydrostatic weighing. The
Vickers microhardness was determined with a PMT-3M in
strument. The method was based on indentation with a dia
mond tip in the form of a regular four-faced pyramid under a
load applied for a certain time, with measurement of the di
agonals on the indent remaining after relieving the load. Ta
ble 1 gives the physicomechanical properties of the speci
In the tribological tests, the specimens were cemented
into metal cylinders, of which one was immobile and the
other rotated. These holders were placed vertically in a
sealed jacket containing 75W140 synthetic oil, and the jacket
was cooled with water. The components were put into rota
tion, after which the vertical loading began. Instruments in
the motor supply circuit measured the actual energy con
sumption of the motor in relation to load. The area of the
components was 3880 mm
, rotation speed 200 rpm, compo
nent surface with roughness not more than Ra 0.05 on both
With specimen No. 1, a pair of items was tested with a
load from 1 to 6 ton, and the power drawn by the motor was
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 3, 2009
1083-4877/09/5003-0224 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Technology Research Institute, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, Russia.
Diarin-AB Scientific Center Limited, Moscow, Russia.