Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 7, pp. 1261−1265.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © A.M. Bochek, N.M. Zabivalova, I.V. Gofman, V.E. Yudin, V.K. Lavrent’ev, I.V. Abalov, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 7, pp. 1191−1195.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Properties of Cellulose Solutions in Methylmorpholine
N-Oxide Containing Montmorillonite Nanoparticles
and of Composite Films Thereof
A. M. Bochek, N. M. Zabivalova, I. V. Gofman, V. E. Yudin,
V. K. Lavrent’ev, and I. V. Abalov
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received April 20, 2011
Abstract—Rheological properties of moderately concentrated solutions of cellulose in methylmorpholine N-oxide–
dimethylformamide mixtures containing hydrophilic montmorillonite nanoparticles were studied. Film composite
materials were prepared, and their physicomechanical properties and structural organization were studied.
Among polymers that are widely used in various ﬁ elds
of human activity, polymers renewable in the nature (cel-
lulose, chitin) and their derivatives occupy a prominent
place [1, 2].
Properties of polymeric composites containing
nanoparticles of various origins were actively studied dur-
ing the past decade [3–5]. Introduction of nanoparticles
into a polymer matrix often leads to changes in the barrier
properties and to signiﬁ cant enhancement of the modulus
characteristics of items prepared from these composites.
Melle et al.  studied how introduction of nanoparticles
into solutions of cellulose in methylmorpholine-N-oxide
(MMO) affects the structural organization of the poly-
mer in hydrated cellulose ﬁ lms. They concluded that
introduction of hydrophilic and hydrophobically modi-
ﬁ ed nanoparticles [montmorillonite (MMT), bentonite,
synthetic spherical particles] did not appreciably affect
the polymer structure. Another study showed that com-
posite ﬁ bers prepared from solutions of cellulose in MMO
with additions of MMT exhibited higher tensile strength
and started to degrade at higher temperatures . In the
above-cited studies, MMT nanoparticles occurred in the
polymer matrix in the exfoliated state. Introduction of
titanium oxide nanoparticles into a solution of cellulose
in NaОН with additions of urea decelerates the polymer
crystallization in the course of ﬁ lm formation and leads
to a decrease in the strength characteristics of the ﬁ lms
. The above examples show that the deformation and
strength characteristics of composite materials based
on cellulose are inﬂ uenced by the solvent in which the
polymer is dissolved and by the nature of nanoparticles
and the mode in which they are introduced.
In this study we examined the rheological properties of
moderately concentrated solutions of cellulose in MMO
with additions of hydrophilic MMT particles.
As starting materials we used cotton linter with DP
is the degree of polymerization, determined
viscometrically from the viscosity of cellulose solutions
Methylmorpholine N-oxide was used as monohydrate
(mMMO). The water content was monitored by Fischer
titration. As diluent we used dimethylformamide (DMF)
in the weight ratio mMMO : DMF = 1 : 1.