1070-4272/02/7511-1725$27.00C2002 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 75, No. 11, 2002, pp. 1725!1731. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 75, No. 11,
2002, pp. 1761!1767.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2002 by Kartsova, Makarov.
Properties of Carbon Materials
and Their Use in Chromatography
L. A. Kartsova and A. A. Makarov
St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received July 24, 2002
Abstract-Sorption properties of graphite, fullerene, and nanotubes were considered, as well as the pattern of
variation of the sorption properties of fullerene C
in complexing with various macrocycles. The use of these
materials as stationary phase in chromatography and in solid-phase concentration of microimpurities of
aromatic hydrocarbons was discussed.
Carbon exists in four allotropic modifications,
namely, diamond, graphite, fullerenes, and linear car-
bon polymer (Karbin). Graphite and diamond were
discovered in the nature as early as the XVIII century
(the relations between diamond and graphite were
studied in detail by French physicists Antoine Loraine
Lavoisier and Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau).
Karbin  and fullerenes were prepared in laboratories
in recent decades. In the 1960s, white Karbin crystals
were detected in natural graphite, and in 1992 it was
found that the Karelian mineral shungite (amorphous
carbon) contains a fullerene impurity (~0.001%).
Diamond and graphite had found wide practical appli-
cation long before their structures were elucidated.
However, these structures were established conclu-
sively only after development of the appropriate phys-
icochemical methods (X-ray and electron diffraction
analyses, etc.). The situation with Karbin and fulle-
renes is the opposite: Their structures have been estab-
lished fairly reliably, but possible applications based
on their expected process characteristics are still the
matter of discussion rather than commercial imple-
mentation. Such allotropic modifications of carbon as
diamond, graphite, and Karbin can be regarded as infi-
nite systems with a regular three, two-, and one-di-
mensional structure, respectively. By contrast, fulle-
renes form a family of individual polyhedral mole-
cules with a closed structure . The scheme in Fig. 1
shows the hierarchy of the carbon structures.
The IUPAC recommends that fullerenes be defined
as closed spherical polyhedra formed exclusively by
three-coordinate carbon atoms with 12 pentagonal and
(n/2 3 10) hexagonal faces, where n > 20. Fullerenes
are termed fullerene, fullerene, etc. Any other
closed spherical polyhedra formed exclusively by
three-coordinate carbon atoms were termed quasiful-
lerenes. The most stable are fullerenes whose structure
is described by the isolated pentagon rule, with each
pentagon surrounded by five hexagons.
The appearance and the physical and chemical
properties of the above-mentioned carbon modifica-
tions strongly vary with the type of the bonds between
the carbon atoms in the molecules of these substances
(Table 1; l is the bond length, and r is the density).
Graphite. The sp
-hybridized carbon atoms in
graphite form infinite planes composed of regular
hexagons, and in fullerenes they form closed shells
including a certain number of atoms. Real graphite
bodies contain a certain amount of disordered atoms
intercalated in the interlayer space. These atoms can
occur in the sp-, sp
-, or sp
The ideal structure of graphite is, essentially, an in-
finite series of mutually parallel layers composed of
hexagons formed by carbon atoms. Mutual displace-
Fig. 1. Hierarchy of carbon structures.