Properties of Aqueous Solutions Containing Blends
of Poly-N-vinylformamide with Carboxymethyl Cellulose
of Various Degrees of Ionization and of Composite Films
of These Polymers
A. M. Bochek, I. L. Shevchuk, I. I. Gavrilova, N. A. Nesterova,
E. F. Panarin, I. V. Gofman, and V. K. Lavrent’ev
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received May 19, 2010
Abstract—Rheological properties of mixtures of dilute and moderately concentrated aqueous solutions of
poly-N-vinylformamide and carboxymethyl cellulose of various degrees of ionization were studied. Composite
film materials were prepared, and their physicomechanical properties and structural organization were studied.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 9, pp. 1622–1627. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © A.M. Bochek, I.L. Shevchuk, I.I. Gavrilova, N.A. Nesterova, E.F. Panarin, I.V. Gofman, V.K. Lavrent’ev, 2010, published in
Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 9, pp. 1524–1529.
Cellulose as a renewable natural polymer and its
derivatives are widely used in various spheres of
human activity [1, 2]. Among cellulose ethers con-
taining ionogenic groups, a particular place is occupied
by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) produced in the
form of sodium salt (NaCMC) . By varying the
degree of ionization of CMC, it is possible to vary the
rheological properties of its solutions and the solubility
of the polymer in water [4, 5]. Films prepared from solu-
tions of CMC in the acid form (HCMC) lose solubility
in water owing to formation of a system of cooperative
intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds .
Synthetic poly-N-vinylamides are also widely used
today . The fields of their application are
biotechnology, medicine, etc. Polyvinylpyrrolidone
(PVP) is used in production of drug forms in the form
of tablets, as blood plasma substitute and blood
detoxicant; agents of prolonged action with a wide
spectrum of activity are prepared on its basis . Of no
less interest is poly-N-vinylformamide (PVFA) which,
along with medical applications, is used as starting
material in synthesis of cationic flocculants,
copolymers, and detergents [8–10]. However, it is
difficult to prepare from PVP and PVFA film materials
with satisfactory physicomechanical properties.
In aqueous solutions of blends of NaCMC with
other cellulose ethers or esters and with synthetic
polymers, the viscosity shows deviations from additive
values [11–13]. Apparently, by varying the degree of
ionization of CMC macromolecules, it is possible to
affect the system of hydrogen bonds existing in
concentrated solutions of polymer blends and in film
In this study we examined the rheological
properties of dilute and moderately concentrated solu-
tions of blends of PVFA with CMC of various degrees
of ionization and the deformation and strength charac-
teristics of film materials prepared from these solutions.
As starting materials we used a commercial
NaCMC sample with the degree of substitution (DS) of
0.46 and MW 92 000 (degree of polymerization DP
460) and PVFA synthesized in a laboratory with
MW = 72 000. The structural formulas of monomeric
units of NaCMC and PVFA are shown below.