TECHNOLOGY OF POLYMERIC
SYSTEMS AND COMPOSITIONS
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 7, pp. 1081−1087.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © V.D. Koshevar, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 7, pp. 1148−1155.
Properties and Use of Aqueous Dispersions
of an Epoxy Oligomer, Prepared
in the Presence of Various Emulsiﬁ ers
V. D. Koshevar
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
Received April 8, 2013
Abstract—The colloid-chemical properties of aqueous dispersions of ED-20 epoxy–4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol
resin, prepared by the method of phase inversion in the presence of various emulsiﬁ ers, were studied, and possible
applications of these dispersions were outlined.
The environment pollution with industrial wastes and
highly volatile organic substances becomes more and
more pressing problem. Therefore, it is appropriate to
replace polymer solutions in organic solvents by water-
dispersible systems. Along with traditional synthetic
latexes, growing attention is given to dispersions and
emulsions prepared by emulsiﬁ cation of ready polymers in
water (artiﬁ cial latexes) [1–4]. The advantages of artiﬁ cial
latexes over polymer solutions are the absence or small
content of volatile organic solvents (environmental, ﬁ re,
and explosion safety), possibility of dilution with water,
simple application, high adhesion to wet substrates, and
low expenditures for ventilation and exhaust equipment.
When replacing solutions of polymers in organic
solvents by their dispersions or emulsions in water, it is
necessary to ensure the following characteristics of the
products: They should preserve the valuable operation
properties of the given polymer to maximum possible
extent; they should exhibit colloid stability (high degree
of dispersity); for binary systems, the contact between
the dispersed phase and curing agent should be efﬁ cient.
In the development of formulations of stable polymer
dispersions or emulsions, proper choice of the emulsiﬁ er
is very important, and this always requires special studies.
Therefore, one of the widely used methods for preparing
artiﬁ cial latexes is direct emulsiﬁ cation of oligomers and
of polymer solutions in melts in aqueous solutions of
surfactants and protective colloids to obtain dispersions
or oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The phase inversion
method is less studied. It consists in preparation of a w/o
(second kind) dispersion or emulsion in the initial step
of the emulsiﬁ cation, followed by the phase inversion to
obtain an o/w system (ﬁ rst kind).
The goals of this study were to examine the effect
of the chemical nature of the emulsiﬁ ers on the colloid-
chemical properties of aqueous dispersions of the epoxy
oligomer, prepared by phase inversion, and to evaluate
possible applications of these emulsions.
Emulsiﬁ cation was performed in an МРW-302 disk-
type hermetic homogenizer (Poland) at the rotation rate
of 5000 rpm and temperature of 293 ± K. The dispersing
time was varied. Technical-grade ED-20 epoxy oligomer
(21.5% epoxy groups, molecular weight M
= 400) served
as dispersed phase. Various surfactants, mainly nonionic,
were used as emulsiﬁ ers. The properties of the surfactants
are given in  and in Table 1.
Aqueous dispersions of ED-20 epoxy resin were
prepared by dissolving an emulsiﬁ er in distilled water
(20% of the total amount) with stirring, adding the