1070-4272/02/7503-0457$27.00C2002 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2002, pp. 457! 460. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 75, No. 3,
2002, pp. 468!471.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2002 by Raskulova, Volkova, Moskaleva, Khaliullin.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Properties and Application Prospects
of 1-(Vinyloxyalkoxy)propylene 2,3-Oxide Copolymers
T. V. Raskulova, L. I. Volkova, O. N. Moskaleva, and A. K. Khaliullin
Favorskii Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Received April 12, 2001
Abstract-Thermal stability, impact strength, folding resistance, and adhesion were studied for copolymers of
vinyl chloride and 1-(vinyloxyalkoxy)propylene 2,3-oxides prepared in acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ranks among basic com-
mercial polymers owing to its versatility and low cost.
To almost 57% polyvinyl chloride consists of chlorine
which is a cheap raw material whose world reserves
are virtually unlimited. This specific polymer compo-
sition is responsible for both its advantages (strength
and resistance to acids and solvents) and disadvant-
ages (high viscosity of melt and low resistance to heat
and light). One of the main disadvantages of PVC is
that the temperature range of its conversion to the
fluid state exceeds the degradation temperature. There-
fore, the processing of PVC into articles requires,
above all, introduction of stabilizing agents enhancing
the thermal stability and plasticizing agents lowering
the flow point .
However, many additives (especially the most
efficient stabilizing agents based on lead, cadmium,
and barium compounds) belong to hazard class 1 and
2 compounds . Modern strict safety requirements to
PVC composition components imply changing to new
types of stabilizing agents free from the above-men-
tioned toxic metals.
The most widely used phthalate plasticizing agents
are regarded as harmless [3, 4]. However, interna-
tional environmental organizations regularly claim on
unsafe application of these agents . A possible
reason is that the PVC3plasticizing agent system
is metastable, and plasticizing agents can migrate
from the composition during exploitation of articles,
thereby taking away toxic stabilizing agents. Also,
the introduced plasticizing agents inevitably decrease
the softening point of the material; as a result, the
deformation temperature of even rigid plastics based
on PVC does not exceed 80oC.
The desired properties of the materials can be
achieved by combining various chemical structures
not only physically (by mixing appropriate composi-
tion components) but also chemically (copolymeriza-
tion of the basic monomer with small amounts of a
modifying comonomer). Therefore, an alternative line
of improving the processability of PVC is copoly-
merization of vinyl chloride (VC) with a small
amount of comonomers containing fairly bulky sub-
stituents ([internal] plasticization) and/or groups able
of efficiently trapping the evolving hydrogen chloride
(self-catalyst of the degradation process) and prevent-
ing oxidation processes (internal stabilization).
Vinyl ethers are often used as such comonomers
. In this case, stabilization is ensured by the
specific structure of the copolymer macromolecules:
Short blocks of VC units are separated by single vinyl
ether units. The rate of elimination of hydrogen chlo-
ride is proportional to the length of VC blocks, which
makes the copolymer containing no stabilizing groups
more stable to thermal degradation than PVC .
The plasticizing efficiency of the polymer material is
increased in the presence of fairly bulky side sub-
stituents in the vinyl ether molecule .
One of the main drawbacks of materials based on
these copolymers is a lower (compared to PVC)
softening point. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce
into the monomer composition functional (e.g., epoxy)
groups able of forming three-dimensional macro-
molecular networks and thereby increasing the soften-
ing point of the material.
In this connection, copolymers of VC and vinyl
ethers containing an oxirane ring seem promising.
These copolymers can efficiently trap hydrogen chlor-
ide, thereby significantly improving the resistance of
copolymers to thermal degradation .
The aim of this work is to study the properties of