REFRACTORIES IN HEAT UNITS
PROMISING GRADES OF OAO ÉNERGORPOM – ChÉZ
CARBON REFRACTORIES FOR LINING BLAST FURNACES
I. V. Rybyanets,
B. I. Davydovich,
S. V. Boiko,
G. N. Romashina,
and G. D. Apal’kova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 11 – 16, July, 2009.
Original article submitted April 28, 2009.
Typical properties (average values) are provided for promising grades of blast furnace blocks. Physical model
ling methods are used for the first time and results are presented for a study of thermal shock resistance and re
sistance to abrasive wear of different grades of carbon blast furnace blocks.
Keywords: carbon refractories, blast furnace blocks, blast furnace.
The trend in metallurgical development as a whole, and
for blast furnaces in particular, is characterized by an in-
crease in furnace unit capacity and constant technical mod-
ernization. The main direction of blast furnace production is
intensification of the process, construction of new blast fur-
naces, and reconstruction of existing furnaces using contem-
porary technology and approaches.
Carbon materials exhibit a unique set of physico-
mechanical properties. Due to the high bonding energy of
carbon atoms graphite remains in a solid state up to a temper
ature of the order of 3500°C; then there is carbon sublima
tion. Graphite strength increases up to 2500°C, and this com
bined with low density provides high heat resistance. Carbon
is inert with respect to some of the most corrosive reagents.
These features give rise to extensive use of carbon materials
as elements of a composite lining for the reaction space of
various units of metallurgical and chemical production.
Conversion of a blast furnace lining from ceramic to car
bon is an important step in iron production technology, mak
ing it possible to increase the reliability and endurance of
furnace units. Serious tasks are also placed in front of the
electrode industry. According to the technical specifications
of Minchermet a new class of carbon lining materials has
been developed and assimilated for blast furnaces. For blast
furnaces with a volume of 2200 m
output of carbon blast
furnace blocks DBU-0 and DBU has been developed and as
similated in accordance with TU 48-12-18–88 “Carbon
blocks for lining blast furnaces.” Graphite blocks are pro-
duced for lining the blast furnace bottom in accordance with
TU 48-12-37–91 “Graphite blocks for blast furnaces”. In ad-
dition carbon lining materials for blast furnaces include
mixes and pastes serving for filling the joints between
Contemporary processes for intensifying blast furnace
production have increased specifications for blast furnace
lining quality, and creation of a new generation of carbon lin
ing materials. Under these conditions research, development
of technology and assimilation of new grades of refractories
for blast furnaces and revelation of the main features for
molding objects with prescribed properties remains impor
During operation of blast furnaces the linings are subject
to the action of high temperature (1500 – 1800°C), corrosive
gases, molten iron and slag, the wearing effect of the loaded
charge. The degree of action of these factors is governed by
the level of physicomechanical properties of the carbon lin
ing, limiting its resistance and service life. Thermo
anthracites with addition of artificial graphite are used as a
filler for producing carbon blast furnace blocks.
The structure and properties of thermoanthracites mark
edly affects the blast furnace block properties. Anthracite is a
coal of the highest degree of metamorphism with a two-di
mensional ordered structure. Anthracites from different de
posits have considerable differences both with respect to
petrographic composition and also with respect to the degree
of metamorphism. Not all anthracite deposits may be used
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 4, 2009
1083-4877/09/5004-0239 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
ZAO Énergoprom Menedzhment.
OAO Énergoprom ChÉZ.
OAO Ural Electrode Institute.