To elucidate proline antioxidant properties in common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants, they were treated with paraquat (a producer of superoxide radical) and/or NaCl and also with paraquat and proline at the stage of 4–5 true leaves. The paraquat solution (1 ml containing 0.1 μmol of the agent) was applied to the leaf surface; NaCl (200 mM) and proline (the final concentration of 5 mM) were added to nutrient medium. Experimental plants were firstly kept in darkness for 12 h, then illuminated, and in 3, 6, and 12 h, leaves and roots were fixed for biochemical analyses. The results obtained are in agreement with the supposition of proline antioxidant properties. In particular, it was established that paraquat induced a slight increase in the proline level in the leaves during dark period of plant growth and also during subsequent 3 h after light switching on. This transient proline accumulation in the leaves was accompanied by its level decrease in the roots. Proline addition to the nutrient medium of paraquat-treated plants neutralized paraquat damaging action on the leaves. In the presence of paraquat, proline treatment reduced the accumulation in the roots of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, the product of membrane lipid peroxidation. It also affected indirectly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and free, covalently bound, and ionically bound peroxidases. Keeping in mind that, in the presence of paraquat, superoxide-induced changes in SOD activity in the roots were negatively correlated with the level of proline, which content was the highest during the last hours of experiments, we can conclude that proline antioxidant effects are manifested only after 12 h of stressor action, whereas antioxidant enzymes are involved in ROS scavenging during the earlier stage of damaging factor action.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 30, 2008
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