PRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF NEW SYNTHESIZED REFRACTORIES
B. N. Satbaev,
A. A. Zharmenov,
A. I. Koketaev,
and N. T. Shalabaev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 42 – 47, May, 2013.
Original article submitted March 4, 2013.
Results are provided for a study of the grain composition of refractory mixes for preparing spinel-periclase
refractories. Results are checked with refractory concrete and coating tests, manufactured by
Ust’-Kamenogorsk by RGP National Center for Complex Processing of Mineral Raw Material of the
Kazakhstan Republic technology. Advantages are demonstrated of using refractory concrete and cement in
lining weighing buckets compared with a brick lining and chromium-magnesite and cement coating.
Keywords: converter lining, lining wear, spinel-periclase refractory, refractory mix grain composition, refrac
tory concrete, coating, dispensing ladle lining, AO Zhezkazan Copper Smelting Combine.
Analysis shows [1 – 4] that traditional aluminosilicate,
high-alumina, and periclase-chromite mortars do not provide
lining sealing, and by causing its premature breakdown, have
an unfavorable effect on metal quality. In view of this an im-
portant problem is development and organization of produc-
tion for unmolded refractory materials for maximum ferrous
and nonferrous heating unit lining life.
The main wear factors for chrome-magnesite (KhM),
periclase-chromite (PKhSP), and chromite-periclase heat re-
sistant (KhPT) refractories, used in lining a converter, may
be grouped as follows.
1. Chemical action of liquid melts.
2. Melt physical action.
3. Atmospheric effect, gas phase chemical action.
4. Thermal and mechanical action.
In the reaction zone as a result of refractory interaction
with converter products together with highly refractory ma
terials there is formation of a considerable amount of com
pounds with lower refractoriness. As refractory is enriched
with iron oxides and silica there is a change-over of
high-temperature phase (forsterite) to more readily melting
magnesia-iron and olivine refractory; iron-containing
spinelids and silicates, and spinels of alumina-magnesia
composition form from periclase. Chemical reaction of
iron-silicate and copper-containing melts, accompanied by
formation of more readily melting compounds, significantly
promotes refractory erosive wear. Apart from chemical reac
tion with metal there is also possible reaction of refractory
with metal oxides, expressed in mutual dissolution. If there
are eutectics in the system, melting below the melt operating
temperature, then during melting in air there will be active
lining wear with slag formation.
Different slag compositions have the strongest effect on
refractory service life. Considerable wear arises with occur-
rence of slags having low viscosity and acid composition.
Thermal shocks are one of the strongest wear factors in a
converter, caused by charging cold additives. Measurements
performed by means of thermal elements in a converter
tuyere zone showed that in this area there are temperature
gradients exceeding 200°C/min.
In order to study refractory reaction with polymetallic
mattes and cold additive components, the main wear factors
were determined by petrographic and chemical studies of
specimens of refractory grades KhM, KhPT, and PKhSP.
Specimens were selected from the tuyere zone of a converter,
within which there is maximum action of a slag-matte melt,
and from the converter end. During processing of normal
mattes within a refractory after operation three zones are
noted, differing in composition and structure, and not having
clear boundaries: working, transition, and least changed. The
thickness of the working zone in KhM refractory is
2 – 5 mm; in KhPT and PKhSP refractories the working zone
is almost absent due to wear by spalling, and the transition
zone thickness is about 40 mm. The working of KhM refrac
tory has a high amount of silicates and substitution by sec
ondary periclase grain spinelid. Grains of chromium spinelid
have a reaction rim; there is partial dissolution of periclase
grains in molten slag silicate phases, which arises through
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 54, No. 3, September, 2013
1083-4877/13/05403-0210 © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Astana Branch RGP National Center for Combined Processing of
Mineral Raw Material of the Kazakhstan Republic, Astana,