ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 6, pp. 857−864. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © M.P. Zhilenko, G.P. Muravieva, H.V. Ehrlich, G.V. Lisichkin,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 6, pp. 696−703.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Production of Highly Dispersed Sodium Chloride: Strategy
M. P. Zhilenko, G. P. Muravieva, H. V. Ehrlich, and G. V. Lisichkin
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991
Received June 7, 2016
Abstract—Various methods for obtaining highly dispersed sodium chloride in the form of powders and sols in
organic solvents were studied and compared. These include the mechanical grinding in a ball mill, laser ablation,
cryochemical method, solvent-substitution method, pyrolysis of an aerosol, and a number of chemical methods.
The samples obtained were examined by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy,
and dynamic light scattering technique. The methods for obtaining highly dispersed NaCl were compared in
three basic parameters: size of particles being obtained, their size distribution, and productivity. It was shown
that, depending on a method used, sodium chloride particles with average sizes in the range from 15–30 nm to
10–20 μm can be obtained.
Halides of alkali metals are outsiders of nanotechnolo-
gies. A minute amount of studies have been concerned
with syntheses of alkali metal halides [1, 2], compared
with the gross number of publications devoted to nanopar-
ticles of noble metals and oxides and chalcogenides of
This is primarily due to the lack, until recently, of ﬁ elds
for practical application of particles of this kind. Only the
halotherapy can be mentioned, in which respiratory and
some other diseases are cured with dry aerosols of natural
rock salt, this curing being based on the known medicinal
effect of sea air and natural salt caves.
At the same time, highly dispersed NaCl with particle
sizes in the range from several nanometers to micrometers
widely occurs in nature and serves as the main component
of sea aerosols [3–5], which are actively involved
in atmospheric processes and can strongly affect the
radiative balance of the Earth, climate, decomposition of
ozone in the atmosphere, etc. Therefore, intensive studies
are presently concerned with problems associated with
growth , hygroscopicity, and moisture content [7, 8]
of small sodium chloride particles and also with chemical
reactions involving these particles [9, 10].
Also, several areas of potential application of highly
dispersed NaCl can be noted. For example, it can be
used as a convenient and inexpensive water-soluble
porogen for fabrication of polymeric membranes  for
membrane methods to be used in puriﬁ cation of drinking
water and wastewater. Of interest for development of
new microelectronic systems is the study  in which
photostimulated molecular processes on the surface of
sodium chloride were examined. One more area of promise
for development of technology is the development of
multifunctional apparatus for the gigahertz and terahertz
ranges, which is impossible without studying the known
radiation sources and extending their variety. Dielectric
NaCl nanoparticles may become a source of this kind.
A study of the stimulated low-frequency scattering of
light, which originates when laser pulses interact with
acoustic vibrations in NaCl nanoparticles, demonstrated
that sols of highly dispersed NaCl can serve as a source of
coherent electromagnetic radiation with a narrow spectral
line in the gigahertz range.
Studies of these and other possible applications of
highly dispersed NaCl (and, in general, of alkali metal