ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 377−381. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © M.S. Rukhlyadeva, M.V. Belousov, E.A. Nikonenko, G.V. Ismagilova, M.P. Kolesnikova, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2015, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 370−374.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Production of Black Iron Oxide from Red Mud
M. S. Rukhlyadeva
, M. V. Belousov
, E. A. Nikonenko
G. V. Ismagilova
, and M. P. Kolesnikova
Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin, ul. Mira 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 Russia
Ural Institute of Economics, Management and Law, ul. Lunacharskogo 194, Yekaterinburg, 620026 Russia
Received June 24, 2014
Abstract—Production of inorganic pigments was studied, and speciﬁ cally that of iron oxide black pigment,
which can be used in paint-and-varnish industry and in manufacture of building and other pigmented materials.
Results are presented of phase and chemical analyses of raw materials and ﬁ nal product. A technological scheme
is suggested and production parameters of the black pigment from red mud are recommended. The pigment is
produced from the –0.045 mm fraction of red mud, a waste from alumina industry. It is recommended to perform
calcination at 850°C in a controlled atmosphere with deﬁ ciency of oxygen. This method yields an iron oxide
pigment of purely black color with a coverage power of 8–10 g m
from a waste produced in manufacture of
alumina, red mud (up to 90%), without additional additives and provides reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by the
sulﬁ de sulfur present in the starting mud.
Synthetic or natural iron(II) and iron(III) compounds
commonly serve as the main raw material for manufacture
of iron oxide pigments . The authors of  developed
a method for obtaining a red iron oxide pigment from
a waste produced in manufacture of alumina, red
mud. The red mud from Bogoslovskii aluminum plant
(Krasnotu’rinsk, Sverdlovsk oblast) occupies a vast
territory, which makes higher the biosphere contamination
level and deteriorates the ecological situation and the
living standards of the population. However, this method
cannot produce a black pigment because the selected
fraction of red mud contains a small amount of sulﬁ de
sulfur necessary for reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II).
The black iron oxide pigment is used in priming and
ﬁ nishing paints for metals in those cases when a high
mechanical strength of a ﬁ lm is required. It is used in
limewashes and in shading colors instead of carbon black
that tends to upﬂ oat to the surface of a ﬁ lm.
The goal of the study was to examine the composition
of red mud and the conditions of its processing into a
black iron oxide pigment in a controlled atmosphere and
to determine the properties of the pigment.
In accordance with the desired goal, the following
tasks were posed: to study the chemical, phase, and granu-
lometric composition of dumped red muds; determine
the grain-size distribution of mud minerals containing
compounds of aluminum, iron, silicon, and sulfur; isolate
mud fractions necessary for obtaining the black pigment;
and determine the effect of mud calcination parameters
on the properties of the resulting pigment.
To cope with these tasks, we used chemical, X-ray
phase (RIGAKU D-max 2200), and granulometric
analyses and IR spectroscopy (Specord, pellets with
KBr, 1 mg of substance per 300 mg of KBr). The mud
was sampled in conformity with GOST (State Standard)
28192–89. The processes of mud hydrocycloning
and calcination were simulated in laboratory with a
hydrocyclone and a high-temperature installation with
controlled atmosphere. The color and spreading capacity
of the resulting pigment were determined by the standard