ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 6, pp. 1090!1092. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text + D.V. Onishchenko, A.K. Tsvetnikov, A.A. Popovich, V.G. Kuryavyi, 2008, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2008,
Vol. 81, No. 6, pp. 1050!1052.
Production of Anode Matrices from Renewable Vegetable
Raw Materials, Including Agricultural Waste
D. V. Onishchenko, A. K. Tsvetnikov, A. A. Popovich, andV. G. Kuryavyi
Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
Kuibyshev Far-Eastern State Technical University, Vladivostok, Russia
Received September 4, 2007
Abstract-Carbon modifications (anode matrices) were produced from renewable vegetable raw mate-
rials, agricultural crop waste, by pyrolysis in a quartz reactor without access of oxygen at 900oC, as well
as by mechanical synthesis, and their characteristics were examined.
Hydrocarbon raw materials, including oil, nat-
ural gases, coals, lignites, peat, oil shales, and nat-
ural graphite , are conventionally used for pro-
duction of anode matrices. However, natural stocks
of hydrocarbon raw materials are known to be de-
pleted worldwide, which inevitably raises their
cost. In addition, many countries suffer from short-
age of hydrocarbon resources or from inefficient
techniques of their extraction and processing. This
stimulates researchers in a number of countries
and, in particular, in China and Japan, to attempt
the use of vegetable (renewable) alternatives to
hydrocarbon raw materials .
We prepared here carbon materials promising
for production of anodes for chemical cyclable
power sources from vegetable (renewable) raw
materials, agricultural waste, and examined them.
As initial raw materials we used wheat, oats, and
buckwheat waste, as well as rice grains, sunflower
seeds, corn grains, coffee beans, tea leaves, and
The dried raw material (moisture con-
tent 1.25%) was freed from impurities with a sepa-
The experiments on production of anode matrices from
renewable raw materials were carried out at the Labora-
tory of Fluorinated Materials, Institute of Chemistry,
Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, and at
the Laboratory of Synthesis of Inorganic Substances,
Kuibyshev Far-Eastern State University.
ration sieve and ground to powder on a mechanical
mill. To accelerate the heating and make it more
uniform [5, 6], the purified powder was placed in
a special desiccator and dried at 49oC for 43 min,
which yielded a material with a 0.2130.23% mois-
ture content. The dried and milled raw material
samples were placed successively into a quartz re-
actor and pyrolyzed at 900oC without access of
oxygen . The termination of pyrolysis was ascer-
tained from the gas evolution cessation. The pyrol-
ysis time of 35372 min was chosen experimentally,
depending on the weight of the initial raw material
loaded into the reactor. Upon termination of the py-
rolysis, the reactor was left to cool together with
the furnace to 25oC, whereupon the pyrolysis prod-
ucts were taken out of the reactor.
The resulting carbon modifications were sub-
jected to mechanical synthesis on an energy-inten-
sive vibration mill
to prepare finely dispersed car-
bon particles . The grinding bodies in the vib-
ration mill were ShKh15 steel spheres 15 mm in
diameter. The mechanical reactor was a hermetical-
ly sealed container with an inner diameter of 50 mm
and height of 125 mm. The experimental conditions
were as follows: reactor vibration frequency 12 Hz;
air atmosphere; intensity (weight ratio of the initial
materials and grinding spheres) 1 : 20; degree of
filling of the reactor with the steel spheres 30% of
its volume; and synthesis time 12 min.
The energy-intensive vibration mill was designed at
the Kuibyshev Far-Eastern State Technical University.