Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 1656−1662.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © A.R. Gataoullin, M.S. Salina, S.A. Bogdanova, Yu.G. Galyametdinov, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86,
No. 11, pp. 1704−1710.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Production and Stabilization of Fullerene Dispersions
in Liquid Media in the Presence of Nonionic Surfactants
A. R. Gataoullin, M. S. Salina, S. A. Bogdanova, and Yu. G. Galyametdinov
Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Received November 15, 2013
Abstract—Dispersion of C
fullerenes in water and ethanol in the presence of nonionic surfactants, ethylene oxide
derivatives, was studied. It was found that the quality of the dispersion process and the stability of dispersions depend
on the structure, degree of oxyethylation, and concentration of surfactants. The optimal conditions are found in
which stable fullerene dispersions are obtained as ingredients of cosmetic preparations with antioxidant properties.
Application of fullerenes in biochemistry, medicine,
and technology of cosmetics is due to their antioxidant
and bactericide properties [1–4]. The ability of
fullerenes and their derivatives to inactivate free
oxygen radicals was described as far back as 1991 in
fullerene, compared to a “sponge imbibing free
radicals” owing to the donor-acceptor properties of the
pseudo-aromatic structure, could, in fact, be used as an
effective antioxidant. However, the possible toxicity of
these compounds is still a matter of discussion , and
problems associated with the synthesis and purity of the
product and introduction of fullerenes into matrices of
varied nature remain unsolved .
It is known that C
fullerene is only soluble in organic
nonpolar or weakly polar solvents . C
in water; however, there exist methods for obtaining its
colloidal dispersions in aqueous-organic media, with
the subsequent removal of the organic solvent . The
introduction of fullerenes into composites intended
for various purposes is complicated by the fact that
the starting nanoparticles are, as a rule, aggregated
and, therefore, are hardly dissolved in formulation
components: the aggregates are as large as hundreds of
nanometers. In this case, there should be no way of telling
that a “nanoproduct” or “nanocomposite” is obtained,
because this state of the system cannot fully provide
manifestation of the unique properties of fullerenes.
Deaggregation is also necessary when fullerenes are
used to dope polymeric materials in order to obtain
nanocomposites with improved physicomechanical
properties [10, 11].
The aforesaid stimulates a scientiﬁ c search in the
ﬁ eld of development of methods for obtaining stable
dispersions of carbon nanoparticles in liquid media. One
of promising research areas is application of surfactants
to intensify the processes of dispersion and stabilization
of nanoparticle aggregates [12–16]. Previously, the
effect of nonionic surfactant additives on the ultrasonic
dispersion of carbon nanotubes has been studied and
positive results have been obtained [17, 18].
The goal of our study was to examine the conditions
in which stable fullerene dispersions can be obtained
to be used as cosmetic ingredients and the effect of the
nature and concentration of nonionic surfactants on the
dispersion process and stability of the systems obtained.
As objects of study served nonionic surfactants, a
block-copolymer of oligo-organosiloxane and oxides of
alkylenes (BC), manufactured by Silan OAO (Dankov
town) and oxyethylated higher fatty alcohols (OE HFA)
with varied medium degree of oxyethylation n = 7–10: