ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 442−448. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © B.N. Kuznetsov, N.V. Chesnokov, S.I. Tsyganova, N.M. Mikova, N.M. Ivanchenko, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015,
Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 437−443.
AND ION EXCHANGE PROCESSES
Production and Properties of Porous Carbon Materials
from Chemically Modiﬁ ed Microcrystalline Cellulose
B. N. Kuznetsov
, N. V. Chesnokov
, S. I. Tsyganova
, N. M. Mikova
, and N. M. Ivanchenko
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Akademgorodok 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Siberian Federal University, pr. Svobodny 79/10, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Received April 10, 2015
Abstract—Certain fundamental aspects of how the porous structure is formed in carbon materials produced by
pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose modiﬁ ed with phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, and zinc chloride
were determined. The above chemical promoters shift the onset of the process of intense thermal transformation
of cellulose to lower temperatures and promote formation of porous carbon materials. Water treatment of porous
carbon materials produced by pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose with high content of a promoter leads to
additional pore opening due to the removal of the excess amount of the promoter and soluble products formed
in its interaction with cellulose, which makes it possible to obtain porous carbon materials with speciﬁ c surface
area of up to 1500 m
Materials of vegetable origin are one of the main
types of raw materials used to produce porous carbon
materials (PCMs) [1–5]. The chemical activation of
plant polymers is used to control the structure and
properties of PCMs formed in carbonization of modiﬁ ed
vegetable raw materials. Various chemical reagents
are used for this purpose, such as acids, alkalis, metal
There have been reports that PCMs are producedby
carbonization of chemically modified celluloses
[10–12]. In chemical modiﬁ cation of celluloses, there
simultaneously occur processes in which cellulose is
carbonized and a developed porous structure is formed
in the resulting carbon material.
For example, copper salts introduced into cellulose
can reduce the onset temperature of intense thermal
transformation processes of cellulose by 40°–50° and
raise the yield and the speciﬁ c surface area of PCMs as
compared with the unmodiﬁ ed cellulose .
To obtain microporous carbon materials with
large specific surface area, it is promising to use
microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which can be produced
from wood raw materials [14, 15]. However, there is
hardly any published evidence about synthesis of PMCs
by chemical activation of MCC.
The goal of our study was to examine the fundamental
aspects of how the porous structure is formed in carbon
materials produced by carbonization of MCC modiﬁ ed
with various chemical reagents: phosphoric acid,
potassium hydroxide, and zinc chloride.
AS the starting material served ﬂ uffed microcrystalline
cellulose (<0.5 mm fraction) produced from birch wood
by an original procedure . Wood shavings were
treated with an aqueous solution containing 5% hydrogen
peroxide, 25% acetic acid, and 2% sulfuric acid at 100°C.
The average degree of polymerization of the resulting
MCC was 250, the crystallinity index was 0.75, and the
content of residual lignin, less than 1%.
MCC was modified by its impregnation with
an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid, potassium
hydroxide, and potassium chloride or ZnCl
. The content