PRINCIPLES OF CREATING NANOSTRUCTURED BINDERS
BASED ON HCBS
A. V. Cherevatova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 104 – 106, April 2010.
Original article submitted October 1, 2009.
The combined interaction of factors is presented determining the principles of creating nanostructured binders
based on highly concentrated ceramic binder systems (HCBS). Presence in HCBS of particles at a nano-level,
and also intentional optimization of the spatial structure of this system has a comprehensive favorable effect
on structure, rheotechnological properties of HCBS, and the technical and operating properties of materials
prepared based upon them.
Keywords: HCBS, nanostructured binder, nanoparticles, matrix phase, synergism effect, complex deflocculants.
Creation of a new generation of high quality materials is
impossible without controlling the process of structure for-
mation at the micro- and nanolevel. Practical interest in
nanosystems in the area of material science of ceramics and
refractories is due to the possibility of creating rational com-
posite structures as a result of their significant modification
with a change-over to the nanolevel accompanied both by a
fundamental change in the properties of traditional materials
and the creation of neocomposites.
However, use of nano-objects in existing technology is
connected with certain difficulties, including the following.
As particle sizes are achieved close to the nanolevel, there is
a considerable reduction in their packing density, and prepa
ration of dense materials is accompanied by considerable
shrinkage. A more promising version from a technical point
of view may be consideration of the presence in a composite
of a small content of nano-dispersed particles, an example of
which is a highly concentrated ceramic binder systems
(HCBS). In addition, currently in view of the increasing re
quirement for effective binder substances, including binders
of the unhydrated hardening type and materials based on
them, exhibiting high operating properties, it is important to
develop a new class of nanostructured binders with a capac
ity to partly or completely replace cement in molding sys
tems over the maximum broad range of material classes.
HCBS technology is one of the newest areas in contem
porary material science, whose theoretical basis was devel
oped by Yu. E. Pivinskii. HCBS are mineral aqueous suspen
sions, obtained primarily by wet grinding of natural or
technogenic silica, aluminosilicate or other materials under
conditions of a high solid phase concentration, increased
temperature and limited dilution. These conditions on one
hand promote “production” in a system of a specific amount
of nanoparticles (gel, obtained by dispersion), and on the
other hand provide mechanical activation of particles of the
main solid phase. Solidification of these systems and their
strength are based predominantly on a contact-polyconden-
sation method. In view of this in creating HCBS the task was
resolved of realizing under industrial conditions a capacity
for the original raw materials for spontaneous polymeriza
tion structure formation [1, 2].
The limited application of these systems is due to the di
lation properties inherent for them, that considerably reduce
the possibility of choosing a compaction method for a mold
ing mix based on HCBS, and complicate the production tech
nology for objects. The problem may be resolved by obtain
ing new theoretical and experimental data about the mecha
nisms of mechanochemical activation and the role of
deflocculants in stabilizing the nanosystems developed, es
tablishing features for regulating the rheotechnological prop
erties of HCBS for their intentional complex modification,
and also revelation of features of structure formation kinetics
and optimization of nanosystems taking account of the
method for object manufacture.
Recently the fundamental possibility has been demon
strated of obtaining refractory binders of a mixed type based
on highly concentrated silica binder suspensions of quartz
sand with addition of refractory clay . On the basis of
morphostructural features of the formation of nanosize
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 51, No. 2, 2010
1083-4877/10/5102-00118 © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
V. G. Shukhov Belgorod State Technological University, Belgo