The emergence and transmission of drug resistant HIV mutants is a major concern, especially in resource-limited countries with expanding antiretroviral therapy. Studies have recently reported the prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations in certain Iranian cities; however, no information is currently available about the level of TDR, as well as the nature of the circulating HIV-1 subtypes, in the Southwestern bordering province of Iran, Khuzestan. Herein, we used a WHO-recommended TDR survey method to classify the prevalence of TDR in indigenous people of Khuzestan province. For this purpose, between March 2014 and February 2015, blood samples were collected from 52 newly diagnosed, antiretroviral treatment-naïve, HIV-1 infected persons aged from 18 to 30 years. TDR mutations were determined by sequencing the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes and interpreted using the WHO drug resistance mutations surveillance list. HIV-1 subtypes were characterized by sequencing the PR-RT, C2-V5, and p17 regions of the pol, env and gag genes, respectively. Two participants had non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations, specifically K103N in one individual and K101EK/K103KN/G190AG in the other. No nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) or major protease inhibitor (PI) mutations were identified. HIV-1 subtyping revealed that all participants were infected with HIV-1 CRF35_AD. According to the WHO sequential sampling method, the prevalence of HIV-1 TDR in the sampling area (Khuzestan province) was classified as moderate for NNRTIs and low for NRTIs and PIs. This is the first HIV-1 drug resistance threshold survey in the Khuzestan province of Iran and shows a predominance of NNRTI TDR mutations in this area.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 6, 2017
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