Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 83, No. 6, pp. 1105−1113.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
I.O. Mikulionok, 2010, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’, 2010, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 24−34.
Pretreatment of Recycled Polymer Raw Material
I. O. Mikulionok
Ukrainian Technical University “Kyiv Polytechnical Institute”, Kiev, Ukraine
Received November 27, 2010
Abstract—The analysis of main methods and equipment for physical utilization (recycling) of polymer waste is
performed. Main stages of the recycling as storage of waste, transportation, crushing and grinding, fractionation,
sorting, washing, dehydration, agglomeration,and granulation are considered in detail.
The annual production capacity of polymers and ma-
terials utilizing them has reached within last ﬁ fty years
almost 300 million tons [1, 2]. The widespread use of
polymers and plastics also results in the problem of the
utilization of waste appearing during the time of produc-
tion, storage, and use of various products and materials.
For example, only in Ukraine 35 mln m
solid waste is collected annually; they are subjected to
burial in 770 waste disposal grounds with the total area
almost 3000 ha and are partly burned at incinerator plants
. The fraction of polymers in these waste is 6…7%
In many cases of the policy of waste treatment the ﬁ ve-
stage hierarchy of the waste management is recognized:
prevention of waste; secondary use; physical process-
ing; energy and chemical processing; safe distribution
or burial .
The third way nowadays is the most appropriate from
the point of view of saving of the material and energy
resources as well as solving ecological problems. At that
one of the most responsible stages of physical processing
of polymer waste (recycling) is the pretreatment of them
which can be characterized by signiﬁ cant difﬁ culties con-
nected ﬁ rst of all with identiﬁ cation, sorting, and cleaning
of the mentioned waste. Not without reason it is foreseen
by the EU directive on recycling and packaging of waste
(2004/12/EU) that by the year 2012 the EU member
states should reach only 22.5% of recycling of waste of
polymer packaging . Therefore the selection of rational
technology and appropriate equipment for pretreatment
of polymer waste is a quite urgent issue.
The purpose of this article is to give an overview of
methods and equipment of pretreatment of polymer waste
for its further utilization by physical processing (obtaining
new products therefrom).
The processing of thermoplastic materials with the
use of recycled raw material includes three groups of
processes: preparation, formation and ﬁ nal processes
. The most important of them are the preparatory
processes; the quality of the product obtained with the
help of forming and ﬁ nal processes to a signiﬁ cant degree
depends on them. Storage, transportation, crushing and
grinding, fractionation, sorting, washing, dehydration as
well as preparation for further processing [2, 5, 6] are
usually regarded as preparatory processes. (At that, some
of listed processes may be absent, in particular, in case
of processing of stable by quantity and quality secondary
raw material, for example, in case of processing of certain
type of unpolluted packaging which comes from the chain
of supermarkets, such stages of mentioned technology
as sorting, washing, and dehydration might be absent).
In typical technological line of the production of
granulated product from the waste of thermoplastic poly-
mers and plastics (Fig. 1) [2, 5] the initial raw material
is supplied to the delivery table; impurities are removed
there, and the polymer constituent is transferred by a
band feeder to the crusher. The crushed raw material is