Cerebral angiography involves the antegrade injection of contrast media through a catheter into the vasculature to visualize the region of interest under X-ray imaging. Depending on the injection and blood flow parameters, the bolus of contrast can propagate in the upstream direction and proximal to the catheter tip, at which point contrast is said to have refluxed. In this in vitro study, we investigate the relationship of fundamental hemodynamic variables to this phenomenon. Contrast injections were carried out under steady and pulsatile flow using various vessel diameters, catheter sizes, working fluid flow rates, and injection rates. The distance from the catheter tip to the proximal edge of the contrast bolus, called reflux length, was measured on the angiograms; the relation of this reflux length to different hemodynamic parameters was evaluated. Results show that contrast reflux occurs when the pressure distal to the catheter tip increases to be greater than the pressure proximal to the catheter tip. The ratio of this pressure difference to the baseline flow rate, called reflux resistance here, was linearly correlated to the normalized reflux length (reflux length/vessel diameter). Further, the ratio of blood flow to contrast fluid momentums, called the Craya–Curtet number, was correlated to the normalized reflux length via a sigmoid function. A sigmoid function was also found to be representative of the relationship between the ratio of the Reynolds numbers of blood flow to contrast and the normalized reflux length. As described by previous reports, catheter based contrast injections cause substantial increases in local flow and pressure. Contrast reflux should generally be avoided during standard antegrade angiography. Our study shows two specific correlations between contrast reflux length and baseline and intra-injection parameters that have not been published previously. Further studies need to be conducted to fully characterize the phenomena and to extract reliable indicators of clinical utility. Parameters relevant to cerebral angiography are studied here, but the essential principles are applicable to all angiographic procedures involving antegrade catheter injections.
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera