ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 485−490. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © A.S. Letyagina, E.V. Es’kova, M.Yu. Pletnev, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 493−498.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Scheme 1. Structures of main phospholipids of lecithin
R is a hydrocarbon radical (fatty acids),
H phosphatidic acid.
Preparation of Stable Direct Emulsions Stabilized
with a System of Phospholipid Emulsiﬁ ers
A. S. Letyagina, E. V. Es’kova, and M. Yu. Pletnev
Lomonosov State University of Fine Chemical Technologies, pr. Vernadskogo 86, Moscow, 119571 Russia
Received April 21, 2014
Abstract—The conditions of formation of stable highly dispersed direct emulsions water–soybean oil–mineral
oil–emulsiﬁ er (base of “natural” creams), stabilized with natural emulsiﬁ ers, soybean lecithin and lysolecithin,
were examined. The effect of 1,2-pentanediol and 1,2-octanediol on the stability of the emulsions and on the
particle size and charge was analyzed from the viewpoint of oriented wedge theory.
Rapidly growing demand for eco-feindly natural
products for cosmetics, hygiene, and household
purposes stimulates the demand for natural surfactants
and emulsifiers prepared from renewable vegetable
raw materials [1–6]. Diphilic compounds such as alkyl
and acyl glucosides, surfactant derivatives of sucrose,
glycedrides, saponins, derivatives of peptides, amino
acids, and phospholipids (lecithins) are widely used as
emulsiﬁ ers and foaming agents of natural or partially
natural origin. Vegetable phospholipids and products of
their hydrogenation and partial hydrolysis (lysolecithins)
[5, 7] are of particular interest. These compounds were
successfully used as food emulsiﬁ ers and dispersants.
Owing to speciﬁ c structural features, phospholipids and
their hydrogenated and synthetic analogs undergo self-
organization into bilayers and vesicles and are widely
used in liposomal agents [4, 5, 8–10] and lamellar
emulsions [4, 11–16].
The physical and chemical properties of phospholipids
are determined by the diphilic character of their molecules
and depend on their structural features, in particular, on
the set of fatty acids and polar groups incorporated into
them [4, 7]. The main phospholipid structures are shown
in Scheme 1.
The goal of this study is ﬁ nding preparation conditions
and optimizing formulas of stable ﬁ nely dispersed o/w
emulsions (as base of natural creams), stabilized with
a mixture of soybean lecithin and lysolecithin, and also
examining the effect of 1,2-alkanediol additives on the
properties of the emulsions.
As the oil phase of the emulsion, we used reﬁ ned
soybean oil [GOST (State Standard) 7825–96] in com-
bination with medicinal mineral oil (GOST 3164–78) in
8 : 2 volume ratio or soybean oil with decamethylcyclo-