Preparation of Graphene–Zinc Oxide Nanostructure Composite
for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing
AHMAD RIFQI MUCHTAR,
NI LUH WULAN SEPTIANI,
and BRIAN YULIARTO
1.—Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of
Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia. 2.—Research Center for
Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia. 3.—e-mail:
A simple method to synthesize graphene–zinc oxide nanocomposite has been
developed. A reduced graphene oxide–ZnO nanocomposite was prepared using
a reﬂux method with ethylene glycol as medium. X-ray diffraction analysis,
scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and nitrogen
adsorption–desorption measurements were used to characterize the resulting
composite materials. The highest response of about 98% was observed when
using pure ZnO at 300°C, while the second highest sensor response of about
96% was achieved by graphene–ZnO with 1:3 composition. It was found that
the graphene–zinc oxide hybrid has potential to improve sensor performance
at low temperature. The graphene–ZnO hybrid with 1:3 composition showed
good response of 36% at 125°C, an operating temperature at which pure ZnO
showed no response.
Key words: Reduced graphene oxide, zinc oxide, nanostructured material,
composite, gas sensor, carbon monoxide
Improving air quality and mitigating air pollution
have become a major mission worldwide. Air pollu-
tion is actually a heterogeneous mixture of gases
and particulate matter.
The main gaseous compo-
nents of air pollution are ozone, carbon monoxide
(CO), nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.
is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless air toxin that
can be poisonous to humans. CO gas can be
produced by incomplete combustion of hydrocar-
bons. The most signiﬁcant emission sources of CO
gas are motor vehicles, tobacco smoke, heating
systems, portable generators, and gas stoves.
sequently, CO gas is a common contaminant of both
outdoor and indoor environments.
Exposure to CO
gas may cause headache, dizziness, vomiting, and
nausea. In fact, all people are at risk of poisoning by
CO gas, but unborn babies, infants, the elderly, and
people with chronic heart disease, anemia, or res-
piratory problems are generally more at risk than
others. Given these dangers, it is urgently necessary
to enable accurate monitoring of CO concentrations.
CO gas monitoring systems need sensors and data
acquisition systems that can detect presence of CO
gas at any concentration. Moreover, high-perfor-
mance CO sensors that increase the accuracy and
reliability of such monitors are highly sought after.
One potential application of graphene is detection
of gaseous molecules, enabling its use in gas sensing
applications. Graphene’s high surface area to mass
ratio, high electrical conductivity, and ability to
work at room temperature represent advantages
that could be utilized in gas sensing. Presence of a
gas molecule on the surface of graphene causes the
molecule to be adsorbed, resulting in electron
conductance. The gas molecule can be an electron
donor or acceptor, changing the amount or mobility
of charge carriers in graphene.
While it has been
(Received September 1, 2017; accepted March 7, 2018;
published online March 21, 2018)
Journal of ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2018
2018 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society