ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 12, pp. 1913−1917. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © E.V. Grinyuk, O.G. Duk, I.V. Sheresh, L.P. Krul’ , 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 12, pp. 1841−1845.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Preparation of Copolymers of Acrylamide
and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic Acid
by Frontal Polymerization
E. V. Grinyuk, O. G. Duk, I. V. Sheresh, and L. P. Krul’
Belarussian State University, pr. Nezavisimimosti 4, Minsk,
Received November 5, 2014
Abstract—Copolymers of acrylamide with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and polyelectrolyte
hydrogels based on them were prepared by frontal copolymerization in concentrated aqueous solutions of the
monomers using ammonium persulfate as initiator. The inﬂ uence of the monomer molar ratio and initiator con-
centration on the possibility of performing the copolymerization in the frontal mode and on the characteristics of
the copolymers and hydrogels obtained was examined.
Because of growing problems with exhaustion of
crude oil resources, acrylamide (AA) polymers acquire
increasing importance in petroleum industry: in drilling
as stabilizers, as regulators of the ﬁ lterability and rheo-
logical properties of muds, etc. It is also promising to
use AA polymers and copolymers as agents reducing the
hydrodynamic resistance of liquids in a turbulent ﬂ ow .
Frontal polymerization (FP) is an autowave process
of transformation of monomer(s) into a polymer in a
localized reaction zone, which propagates in an unstirred
medium owing both to thermal transfer and to Arrhenius
dependence of the rate of exothermic polymerization .
The FP reaction was discovered in 1972 by Chechilo
et al.  in a study of the polymerization of methyl
methacrylate in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as
initiator at elevated pressure. This reaction mode is
promising for rapid synthesis of polymers and hydrogels
[4–6]. The necessary conditions for FP are, first,
exothermicity of the polymerization and, second, low rate
(or absence) of the polymerization of the monomers at the
initial (room) temperature and high rate of the reaction at
the front temperature, so that the rate of the heat release
should exceed the rate of the heat loss . Under these
conditions, the FP reaction after the initiation does not
require additional heating, which decreases the power
consumption and hence the cost of the process. However,
it is not always simple to reach these conditions. The
viability of the monomer mixture at room temperature can
be enhanced by using a microencapsulated initiator .
The frontal polymerization of vinyl monomers,
namely, of AA, was extensively studied [9–16] under
different conditions (polymerization of crystalline АА
, of liquid monomers , in water , in salt
solutions  in organic solvents [10, 11, 17], in the
presence of ﬁ llers [13–15]). However, copolymerization
of AA with other comonomers in the frontal mode has
been studied insufﬁ ciently .
This study deals with the copolymerization of AA
with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid
(AMPS) at different monomer molar ratios and initiator
Monomers (AA, main substance content 98.0%,
Reanal; AMPS, main substance content 99.0%, Aldrich)
and the thermal initiator [ammonium persulfate (APS),