Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 12, pp. 2148−2151.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © M.S. Belov, E.A. Zakharychev, S.A. Ryabov, E.N. Razov, A.N. Moskvichev, A.M. Ob”edkov, Yu.D. Semchikov, 2011, published in
Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 12, pp. 2065−2067.
Preparation of Composite Materials on the Basis of Polyvinyl
Chloride and Nanomodiﬁ ers
M. S. Belov, E. A. Zakharychev, S. A. Ryabov, E. N. Razov, A. N. Moskvichev,
A. M. Ob”edkov, and Yu. D. Semchikov
Lobachevskii Nizhni Novgorod State University, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
Blagonravov Institute of Engineering Science, Nizhni Novgorod Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
Received February 18, 2011
Abstract—The inﬂ uence of carbon nanocompositions on physical-mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride
Preparation of polymeric compositions with improved
complex of properties on the basis of polymers is one of
the major problems of polymer chemistry and technology.
This problem is especially topical in relation to polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), which is one of large-capacity polymers.
To decrease the polymer consumption and cost of
compositions, and to impart special properties to mate-
rials, ﬁ lling agents are used . Recently it was shown
that small amounts of fullerenes (carbon nanoparticles)
essentially inﬂ uence properties of the composites [2-8].
However others nano-ﬁ lling agents based on carbon, such
as diamond nanopowders, heat-expanded graphite, and
carbon nanotubes, are poorly studied.
Heat-expanded graphite (HEG) is a unique carbon
component for producing composite materials (CM).
In contrast to other forms of dispersed graphite, HEG
particles have a vermicular shape and a cellular surface
structure [9, 10]. Composite materials based on PVC and
HEG have a wide spectrum of electrophysical properties
and can be used for making sensors sensitive to the action
of gaseous compounds .
Carbon nanotubes (CNT), which are known to have
record characteristics, so far are poorly studied as PVC
ﬁ lling agents, which can effectively improve strength
properties of composite polymer materials, as follows
from . In the present work we used multiwall carbon
nanotubes (MWNT) of 20–80 nm in diameter and up to
100 μm in length prepared by chemical precipitation at
temperature 850°С from ferrocene and toluene vapors.
Up to now, diamond nanopowders prepared by explo-
sion of organic substances with high carbon content and
rather low oxygen content  were not systematically
studied as PVC ﬁ lling agents. A characteristic feature
of diamond nanopowders prepared in this way is their
nanosize of 4–5 nm.
The aim of this work was to prepare composite materi-
als based on PVC and small amounts of nanomodiﬁ ers
and to study physical-mechanical properties and structure
of the resulting materials.
We used compositions containing C-70-grade PVC,
dioctylphthalate as a plasticizer (in the ratio 3 : 2), and
also ﬁ lling agents MWNT, HEG, and diamantine, dia-
mond nanopowders in amounts from 0.01 up to 0.08%
of PVC weight. The compositions were prepared by
a plastisol technique at 150°С . The dispersion of
PVC with nanodispersed ﬁ lling agent was carried out
using ultrasonic action (u/s) together with a high-speed