Cellulose https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-018-1854-8 COMMUNICATION Preparation of cellulose nanoﬁbrils for imaging purposes: comparison of liquid cryogens for rapid vitriﬁcation . . . . Jonathan Ø. Torstensen Per-Olav Johnsen Henrik Riis Richard J. Spontak . . Liyuan Deng Øyvind W. Gregersen Kristin Syverud Received: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018 Abstract Artifact-free imaging of cellulose nanoﬁb- Keywords Nanocellulose Cellulose nanoﬁbril rils (CNFs) from aqueous nanocellulose suspensions is Freeze-drying Cryopreparation Scanning electron nontrivial due to frequent irreversible agglomeration microscopy and structure damage during the course of sample preparation, especially as water is solidiﬁed prior to freeze-drying. In this study, we have examined the morphologies of CNF suspensions prepared by rapid Introduction vitriﬁcation in two different liquid cryogens—nitro- gen and ethane—followed by freeze-drying. Results A recurring issue concerning the morphological char- obtained by scanning electron microscopy conﬁrm acterization of nanocellulose, such as cellulose that vitriﬁcation in liquid ethane not only greatly nanoﬁbrils (CNFs), is selecting specimen preparation improves the survivability of ﬁne-scale CNF structural techniques that preclude both agglomeration and elements but also signiﬁcantly reduces the propensity structural damage prior to imaging and speciﬁc surface for CNF to agglomerate. area
Cellulose – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 5, 2018
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