ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 118!121. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text + E.V. Udoratina, V.A. Demin, 2007, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 119!122.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Preparation of a Lignocellulose Material from Wastes
E. V. Udoratina and V. A. Demin
Institute of Chemistry, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar,
Komi Republic, Russia
Received September 4, 2006
Abstract-A powder lignocellulose material was prepared from waste paper and characterized. Waste paper is
partially hydrolyzed with peroxomonosulfuric acid. Physicochemical characteristics, functional composition,
and the IR spectra of the resulting samples were studied. The parameters of supramolecular structure were
estimated from the evidence of the IR spectra.
Interest in the use of fibrous secondary material
(waste paper) for production of various types of paper
products grows steadily. Reprocessing of waste paper
into paper and cardboard reduces water consumption,
release of detrimental gases into the environment, and
saves many hectares of forests. A search for new
applications of waste paper is an urgent problem.
The chemical and physical structure of secondary
fibers undergoes irreversible transformations during
reprocessing (milling and drying). The majority of
pores and capillaries are destroyed, and the fiber sur-
face contracts and is keratinized, which prevents
swelling of the fiber . The mechanical character-
istics of the paper from wastes are deteriorated. Along
with this, waste paper fiber is of interest as a raw
material for production of powder materials (PMs).
In recent years, powder celluloses find increasing
application in various branches of industry. They are
used as fillers, stabilizers, binding and filtering mate-
rials, and chromatographic media. Powder materials
can be prepared from various raw materials, including
unbleached cellulose and wood pulps, containing lig-
nin and lignocarbohydrate complex, by treatment with
hydrolyzing and oxidizing agents causing partial
degradation of cellulose to limiting values of the
degree of polymerization.
Unbleached cellulose fiber containing lignin is
used for production of various types of cardboard and
can be incorporated into the composition of newsprint.
Therefore, spent cardboard package and newspapers
can be considered as the secondary raw materials for
production of powder lignocellulose material.
The aim of this study was to examine the possibil-
ity of utilization of package cardboard and newsprint
as cellulose raw materials for production of powder
forms of cellulose and powder lignocellulose sorbents.
The milled initial material was hydrolyzed with
peroxomonosulfuric acid (PMA), prepared by mixing
of concentrated H
solution and concentrated sul-
furic acid, in a solution containing 10% H
. The treatment temperature was 100oC,
duration, 33 4 h, and solid-to-liquid ratio, 1 : 30.
The resulting material was washed to neutral reaction,
included with a 1 : 1 acetone : ethanol mixture, and
dried in air. The dried samples were milled to obtain
homogeneous samples .
The resulting powder lignocellulose materials were
characterized by functional analysis performed by the
common procedures of wood chemistry. The content
of carboxy groups was determined by the chemisorp-
tion method based on the exchange reaction of COOH
groups with an 0.2 M solution of calcium acetate .
To a weighed portion of raw material after decationa-
tion (treatment with 0.1 M HCl for 1 h at room tem-
perature and washing with distilled water) and drying
to absolutely dry state we added a solution of calcium
acetate (solid-to-liquid ratio 1 : 100) and kept for 2 h
and room temperature. Potentiometric titration of
the sample solution was performed with an 0.05 M
NaOH solution to pH 7.8 (pH of the initial 0.2 M
solution of calcium acetate) after separation of the
material on a Schott filter.
The content of carbonyl groups was determined by
the reaction of the sample with hydroxylamine hydro-
chloride to form oximes; the released equivalent