ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 3, pp. 482!486. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text + O.O. Nikolaev, A.E. Tubolkin, V.P. Britov, G.A. Steblovskii, V.V. Bogdanov, 2008, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2008,
Vol. 81, No. 3, pp. 497!501.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Preparation and Modification of Low-Viscous Polymeric
Composites in Rotary-Pulsatory Apparatus
in the Self-Oscillating Mode
O. O. Nikolaev, A. E. Tubolkin, V. P. Britov, G. A. Steblovskii, and V. V. Bogdanov
St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University), St. Petersburg, Russia
Received May 23, 2007
Abstract-Preparation and modification of low-viscous polymeric composites in rotary-pulsatory apparatus
operating in the self-oscillating mode are described. These are synthesis of antioxidant dispersions, preparation
of artificial latexes from an isoprene rubber, modification of epoxy resins with low-molecular-weight
carboxyl-containing rubbers, modification of cis-1,4-polyisoprene with a salt of n-nitrosodiphenylamine.
The possibility of substantial intensification of these processes is analyzed.
Preparation and modification of polymeric com-
posites in the course of mixing is one of the main
ways to develop new materials. In recent years, new
phenomenological concepts of activating mixing as
a process for obtaining polymeric composite materials
were put forward. According to these concepts, the
energy imparted to the components not only causes
homogenization and dispersion, but also either ini-
tiates chemical reactions between the components that
do not occur in other conditions or accelerates the
chemical transformations that otherwise are slow.
These concepts have proved to be the most fruitful in
the development of processes for preparation and
modification of composites based on low-molecular-
weight polymers .
At the same time, the already developed tech-
nologies need modification in order to raise the output
capacity of the process and improve the quality of
the composites obtained. One of the most effective
ways to implement the activating mixing of low-
viscous polymers is treatment of the mixture compo-
nents in rotary-pulsatory apparatus (RPA) operating
in both the laminar and turbulent modes. Under cer-
tain conditions, these apparatus can also operate in
a specific self-oscillation mode, in which the power
consumed is substantially lowered and the pulsating
dynamic load on materials is raised. This opens up
new opportunities for intensification of the processes
performed in these apparatus .
To develop a technology for synthesis and modi-
fication of formulations of various compositions in
RPA under self-oscillation conditions, we used the
following four groups of materials.
(A) Materials for preparing dispersions of antioxi-
dants. We used an aqueous solution of a biodegrad-
able and nontoxic nonionic (an oxyethylated alcohol)
or anionic (a carboxylic or sulfonic acid) surfactant.
The concentration of the antioxidant suspension was
1320 wt %. As antioxidants served those commonly
used for stabilization of rubbers: Neozone-D (phenyl-
b-naphthylamine), DPPD (diphenyl-p-phenylenedi-
amine), and Ionol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol).
Other antioxidants were also studied.
(B) Materials for preparing artificial latexes. As
objects of study served aqueous emulsions of SKI-3
rubber with a concentration of 10314 wt %.
(C) Materials for preparing composites based on
epoxy resins with low-molecular-weight carboxyl-
containing rubbers: composites based on an epoxy
oligomer (oligoether epoxide) and liquid rubbers with
terminal carboxy groups (butadiene3nitrile and buta-
diene); epoxy oligomer and liquid butadiene3nitrile
rubber with terminal carboxy groups, diluted with
furfuryl glycidyl ether.
(D) Materials for rubber modification: solutions
of cis-1,4-polyisoprene in hexane, with various