Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2018) 48:471–485
Preparation and characterization of a carbon nanotube-based ceramic
electrode and its potential application at detecting sulfonamide drugs
Andressa Hornes Schebeliski
· Dhésmon Lima
· Luís Fernando Quintino Pereira Marchesi
Carolina Maria Fioramonti Calixto
· Christiana Andrade Pessôa
Received: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published online: 9 March 2018
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018
In this work, we report the construction, characterization, and the potential application of carbon-ceramic electrodes prepared
with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CCE/f-MWCNT) to detect two sulfonamide drugs: sodium sulfacetamide
(SFC) and sulfadiazine (SFD). Prior to the construction of CCE/f-MWCNT, MWCNT samples were functionalized by using
an acid treatment (HNO
), and then characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, FESEM, and Raman spectroscopy.
These techniques were also employed to characterize the prepared carbon-ceramic electrodes, and the obtained results
demonstrated that the MWCNT were properly dispersed in the silica matrix. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical
impedance spectroscopy experiments showed that the f-MWCNT could enhance the electrochemical performance of the
electrodes, as a consequence of its high electrical conductivity and large surface area. The antibacterial drugs were deter-
mined with CCE/f-MWCNT by employing CV and diﬀerential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A linear relationship between DPV
peak currents and SFC and SFD concentrations was veriﬁed separately in the range from 9.9 to 177.0 µmol L
in 0.04 mol
BR buﬀer solution pH 6.0. Detection and quantiﬁcation limits were found to be 1.06 and 3.54 µmol L
for SFC and
2.31 and 7.71 µmol L
for SFD, respectively. Besides the good sensitivity, the CCE/f-MWCNT showed reproducibility
and speciﬁcity, since its response was not signiﬁcantly aﬀected by the presence of electroactive interfering compounds.
The promising analytical performance of the CCE/f-MWCNT was conﬁrmed by determining SFC and SFD in commercial
veterinary formulations, with percent recoveries ranging from 99.9 to 101.1% for SFC and from 99.8 to 102.2% for SFD.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (https ://doi.org/10.1007/s1080 0-018-1171-9) contains
supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Extended author information available on the last page of the article