Caloncoba echinata is enlisted among the medicinal plants of African origin. However, little is known about its safety and general effects in the body. This study investigated the acute toxicity property, phytochemical profile, and haematological and histomorphometric changes of vital organs associated with its administration. Thirty-two albino mice assigned into eight groups of four mice per group were used for acute toxicity study. Groups 1–7 rats received 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg of the extract orally, respectively, while distilled water (DW) was administered to the rats in group 8. The mice were observed for 48 h for signs of toxicity. Standard method was used to evaluate the phytochemical components of the plant, while 24 albino mice allotted to four groups of six mice each were used to study the effects of C. echinata on haematology. Mice in groups 1–3 were administered with 200, 100 and 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively twice daily for 7 days, while group 4 mice received DW. Blood for haematology and vital organs for histomorphometric studies were harvested on day 8. One mouse died in group 7. Flavonoids, tannins, phenol, terpenes, glycosides and reducing sugars were abundantly present, while alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were present in moderate quantity. Resin and balsam were absent. There were no significant changes in haematological parameters. Mild degenerations were observed in the hepatocytes and renal tubular cells of group A mice. It was concluded that the extract may not be relatively very safe.
Comparative Clinical Pathology – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2018
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