Preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene copy number varies from 0 to 85 in a population of wild mice identified as Mus musculus domesticus

Preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene copy number varies from 0 to 85 in a population of... The preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene regulates the rate of preimplantation embryonic cleavage division and subsequent embryo survival. In the mouse, the Ped gene product is Qa-2 protein, a nonclassical MHC class I molecule encoded by four tandem genes, Q6/Q7/Q8/Q9. Most inbred strains of mice have all four genes on each allelic chromosome, making a total of eight Qa-2 encoding genes, but there are a few strains that are missing all eight genes, defining a null allele. Mouse strains with the presence of the Qa-2 encoding genes express Qa-2 protein and produce embryos with a faster rate of preimplantation embryonic development and a greater chance of embryo survival compared to mouse strains with the null allele. There is extensive evidence that the human homolog of Qa-2 is HLA-G. HLA-G in humans, like Qa-2 in mice, is associated with enhanced reproductive success. The human population is an outbred population. Therefore, for a better comparison to the human population, we undertook an investigation of the presence of the genes encoding Qa-2 in an outbred population of mice. We used Real-Time Quantitative PCR to quantify the number of Qa-2 encoding genes in a population of 32 wild mice identified as Mus musculus domesticus both by morphologic assessment and by PCR analysis of their DNA. We found great variability in the number of Qa-2 encoding genes in the wild mice tested. The wild mouse with the highest number of Qa-2 encoding genes had 85 such genes, whereas we discovered one wild mouse without any Qa-2 encoding genes. Evolutionary implications of a range of Qa-2 encoding gene numbers in the wild mouse population are discussed, as well as the relevance of our findings to humans. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Mammalian Genome Springer Journals

Preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene copy number varies from 0 to 85 in a population of wild mice identified as Mus musculus domesticus

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Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Life Sciences; Zoology ; Anatomy ; Cell Biology
ISSN
0938-8990
eISSN
1432-1777
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00335-007-9067-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene regulates the rate of preimplantation embryonic cleavage division and subsequent embryo survival. In the mouse, the Ped gene product is Qa-2 protein, a nonclassical MHC class I molecule encoded by four tandem genes, Q6/Q7/Q8/Q9. Most inbred strains of mice have all four genes on each allelic chromosome, making a total of eight Qa-2 encoding genes, but there are a few strains that are missing all eight genes, defining a null allele. Mouse strains with the presence of the Qa-2 encoding genes express Qa-2 protein and produce embryos with a faster rate of preimplantation embryonic development and a greater chance of embryo survival compared to mouse strains with the null allele. There is extensive evidence that the human homolog of Qa-2 is HLA-G. HLA-G in humans, like Qa-2 in mice, is associated with enhanced reproductive success. The human population is an outbred population. Therefore, for a better comparison to the human population, we undertook an investigation of the presence of the genes encoding Qa-2 in an outbred population of mice. We used Real-Time Quantitative PCR to quantify the number of Qa-2 encoding genes in a population of 32 wild mice identified as Mus musculus domesticus both by morphologic assessment and by PCR analysis of their DNA. We found great variability in the number of Qa-2 encoding genes in the wild mice tested. The wild mouse with the highest number of Qa-2 encoding genes had 85 such genes, whereas we discovered one wild mouse without any Qa-2 encoding genes. Evolutionary implications of a range of Qa-2 encoding gene numbers in the wild mouse population are discussed, as well as the relevance of our findings to humans.

Journal

Mammalian GenomeSpringer Journals

Published: Nov 8, 2007

References

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