1070-4272/01/7404-0696 $25.00 C 2001 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 74, No. 4, 2001, pp. 696!699. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 74, No. 4, 2001,
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2001 by Begak, Syroezhko.
OF FOSSIL FUEL
Prediction of the Quality of Petroleum Bitumens
O. Yu. Begak and A. M. Syroezhko
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Mendeleev Russian Research Institute of Metrology, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received December 4, 2000
Abstract-The common and specific features of quality standard and substandard bitumens were studied by
elemental analysis and by determining the yield and composition of toluene-insoluble substances, the com-
position and concentration of impurities in standard and substandard bitumens, and the group composition
of bitumens before and after aging.
At present, about 2/3 of crude oil in Russia is ex-
tracted from West-Siberian fields. At the Kirishi Oil-
Refining Plant, vacuum residues from a commercial
mixture of West-Siberian crude oils from the Surgut
fields are used to produce oxidized bitumens for pav-
ing and building. The technical characteristics of these
bitumens are determined by their colloid structure,
which, to a first approximation, depends on the group
composition [1, 2]. The optimal group composition
of bitumens produced from vacuum residues of vari-
ous crude oils (of methane, naphthene, arene base)
has not been determined. However, it is commonly
accepted that, to attain high technical characteristics,
paving bitumens should consist of ~50% mono-, bi-,
and polycycloaromatic and paraffin3naphthene com-
pounds, 30334% resins, and 21323% asphaltenes.
At similar group (and hence chemical) composition,
bitumens obtained from the same raw material often
exhibit different heat resistances (which is often mani-
fested in a drastic decrease in ductility upon heating).
Therefore, bitumens are subdivided with respect to
this parameter into quality standard and substandard,
despite compliance with the requirements of GOST
(State Standard) 7847393 concerning other technical
characteristics (softening point, penetration, flash
point, brittle point).
The goal of this study was to reveal, using modern
physicochemical methods of analysis, the factors re-
sponsible for the difference between the heat-resistant
(standard) and non-heat-resistant (substandard) bitu-
Samples of standard and substandard bitumens of
BDUS 100/130 and BDUS 70/100 brands (21 sam-
ples) were studied by elemental analysis (C, H, N,
O, S) and exclusion chromatography.
From each bitumen sample
we recovered sub-
stances insoluble in toluene and analyzed them by
ICP3MS on a VG Plasma Quad Turbo Plus spec-
trometer (UK). The content of microimpurities in bi-
tumen samples was determined by the same method.
Asphaltenes were recovered from bitumens by ex-
haustive precipitation with hot pentane in a Soxhlet
apparatus. Their elemental analysis was performed
with a Carlo Erba analyzer (model 1106, Italy).
HPLC studies were performed on a Gold Sys-
tems liquid chromatograph (Beckman, the United
States) equipped with a fast-response spectrophoto-
metric detector (model 168) and a 6.2 0 250-mm Zor-
bax PSM 300 S column for exclusion chromatography
(Du Pont, the United States).
Standard samples of BDUS 100/130 bitumens (five
samples) have the following parameters: ring-and-ball
softening point 43345oC; penetration (needle 0.1 mm
in diameter, 25oC) 1033118; ductility before heating
Produced on a bitumen installation at the Kirishinefteorgsintez
Production Association, Joint-Stock Company, in May 2000.