Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment [saj] pp526-sebu-375649 July 15, 2002 20:17 Style ﬁle version June 4th, 2002
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Vol. 14, No. 4, October 2002 (
Prediction of Recidivism in Exhibitionists:
Psychological, Phallometric, and Offense Factors
Sharon R. Rabinowitz Greenberg,
John M. Bradford,
and David M. Greenberg
Exhibitionists have traditionally been regarded as nuisance offenders. However,
empirical studies show that some offenders can be highly recidivistic and can
escalate to incidents of Hands-on sexual assault. The objective of this study was
to investigate predictors of recidivism in exhibitionists and clarify the differences
between Hands-on and Hands-off sexual recidivists. Two hundred and twenty-one
exhibitionists were assessed at a university teaching hospital between 1983 and
1996. Archival data came from medical ﬁles and police ﬁles. The Psychopathy
Checklist – Revised (PCL-R) was assessed retrospectively. Results indicated that
over a mean follow-up period of 6.84 years, 11.7, 16.8, and 32.7% of exhibitionists
were chargedwith or convicted of sexual,violent, or criminal offenses, respectively.
Sexual reoffending recidivists were less educated, and had more prior sexual and
criminal offenses. Violent, recidivists were also less educated, had lower Dero-
gatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) scores, higher PCL-R Totals, and more
prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Criminal recidivists were younger,
less educated, had lower DSFI scores, higher PCL-R scores, higher Pedophile
Indices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Hands-on sexual
recidivists demonstrated higher PCL-R ratings, higher Pedophile and Rape in-
dices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses than did Hands-off
KEY WORDS: exhibitionist; sex offender; paraphilia; recidivism; predictors.
School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science, University of Western Australia, Australia.
To whom correspondence should be addressed at School of Psychology and Department of Psychiatry,
120 University Private, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5; e-mail: ﬁreston@uottawa.ca.
2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation