An Escherichia coli model system was developed to estimate the capacity of the integrase of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4) for precise excision of the long terminal repeat (LTR) and, hence, the entire gypsy. The gypsy retrotransposon was cloned in the form of a PCR fragment in the pBlue-Script II KS+ vector (pBSLTR), and the region of the second open reading frame (INT ORF2) of this element encoding integrase was cloned under the lacZ promoter in the pUC19 vector and then recloned in pACYC184 compatible with pBSLTR. The LTR was cloned in such a manner that its precise excision from the recombinant plasmid led to the restoration of the nucleotide sequence and the function of the lacZ gene; therefore, it was detected by the appearance of blue colonies on a medium containing X-gal upon IPTG induction. Upon IPTG induction of E. coli XL-1 Blue cells obtained by cotransformation with plasmids pACYCint and pBSLTR on an X-gal-containing medium, blue clones appeared with a frequency of 10−4 to 10−3, the frequency of spontaneously appearing blue colonies not exceeding 10−9 to 10−8. The presence of blue colonies indicated that that the integrase encoded by the INT ORF2 (pACYCint) fragment was active. After the expression of the integrase, it recognized and excised the gypsy LTR from pBSLTR, precisely restoring the nucleotide sequence and the function of the lacZ gene, which led to the expression of the β-galactosidase enzymatic activity. PCR analysis confirmed that the LTR was excised precisely. Thus, the resultant biplasmid model system allowed precise excisions of the gypsy LTR from the target site to be detected. Apparently, the gypsy integrase affected not only the LTR of this mobile element, but also the host genome nucleotide sequences. The system is likely to have detected only some of the events occurring in E. coli cells. Thus, the integrase of gypsy is actually capable of not only transposing this element by inserting DNA copies of the gypsy retrotransposon to chromosomes of Drosophila, but also excising them. gypsy is excised via a precise mechanism, with the original nucleotide sequence of the target site being completely restored. The obtained data demonstrate the existence of alternative ways of the transposition of retrotransposons and, possibly, retroviruses, including gypsy (mdg4).
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 17, 2006
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera