Practical Aspects of Off-Axis Illumination in Optical Nanolithography

Practical Aspects of Off-Axis Illumination in Optical Nanolithography The practical aspects are analyzed of off-axis illumination in optical lithography below the Rayleigh resolution. For major light-source aperture configurations, fundamental lower limits are identified on the lithographic factor $$k_1 = \frac{{L \cdot NA}}{\lambda }$$ , where L is the mask linewidth,NA is the numerical aperture of the objective, and λ is the wavelength. A practical approach is discussed to the calculation of the attainable values of k 1 for different aperture configurations, allowing for the forbidden-pitch phenomenon. Russian Microelectronics Springer Journals

Practical Aspects of Off-Axis Illumination in Optical Nanolithography

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Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
Copyright © 2004 by MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica”
Engineering; Electrical Engineering
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