QUALITY AND CERTIFICATION
POTENTIAL FOR THE USE OF NONDESTRUCTIVE
ACOUSTIC METHODS OF INSPECTION FOR ESTIMATION
OF THE PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
AND QUALITY OF REFRACTORIES
A. D. Buravov,
S. V. Vikhman,
E. Z. Kovarskaya,
I. B. Moskovenko,
O. K. Nekrasova,
and M. A. Smirnova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 12, pp. 38 – 42, December, 2011.
Original article submitted September 8, 2011.
Certain potential fields of application and the results of the use of acoustic low-frequency methods of nonde
structive inspection of the physico-mechanical properties and quality of different types of refractory materials
are presented. A description of the equipment and of the standards that regulate the use of nondestructive
acoustic methods as regards inspection of refractory articles and corrosive tools in the course of their produc-
tion and application is presented.
Keywords: refractory materials, abrasives, nondestructive inspection, low-frequency acoustic methods,
physico-mechanical properties, monitoring
The modern level of the technology employed in the fab-
rication of refractory articles has made it necessary to test
their physico-mechanical properties. As a rule, inspection is
performed by means of destructive methods on samples that
are cut out from articles selected randomly from the produc
tion lots which are to be checked. Great effort is involved in
the use of methods (procedures) of nondestructive inspection
of materials for the purpose of estimating the properties of
molded articles, in particular, by means of measurements of
the rate of propagation of sound (ultrasound), resonance fre
quency, and the characteristics of X-radiation. On the one
hand, this makes it possible to detect hidden internal defects
such as cracks, pores, cavities, aggregates of large grains,
and calcined or impregnated cores. On the other hand, there
exists good correlation between the results obtained by non
destructive methods of testing and inspection and traditional
methods (determination of apparent density, open porosity,
strength). The equipment used for inspection of refractory
materials by means of nondestructive methods often are very
expensive, though such equipment precludes any loss of arti
cles and eliminates the need for preparation of samples. A
large number of articles (up to full-scale 100% inspection)
may be rapidly checked by means of a nondestructive in
spection method. Articles of a higher grade or critical com
ponents are usually subjected to such tests. For each type of
article it is necessary to check the informational precision of
nondestructive inspection and tests, since these types of tests
and inspection possess certain detection limits .
A rather considerable volume of experience has been ac
cumulated over time in the area of the development of non
destructive inspection of refractory articles with the use of
radio wave [2, pp. 80 – 82] and acoustic [2, pp. 95 – 99]
methods of inspection, though these methods have still not
entered into widespread use in industry for a number of rea
sons basically having to do with organizational factors. At
the same time, nondestructive acoustic methods of inspection
are now rather widely used in the production of different
types of abrasive articles, the manufacturing technology of
which is analogous to the technology employed in the pro
duction of refractory materials (starting materials, mixing,
molding, drying, roasting). In 1983 GOST 25961–83 “Abra
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 6, March, 2012
1083-4877/12/05206-0436 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
From materials of the International Conference of Refractory
Specialists and Metallurgists (March 31 – April 1, 2011, Moscow).
OAO NVF Kerambet-Ogneupor, St. Petersburg, Russia.
St. Petersburg State Technological University (technical insti
tute), St. Petersburg, Russia.
OOO Zvuk, St. Petersburg, Russia.