Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 12, pp. 2122−2126.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © T.N. Poyarkova, G.V. Kudrina, L.A. Korystina, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 12, pp. 1238−1242.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Potassium Salts of Soapstock as Effective Emulsiﬁ ers
in Styrene Polymerization
T. N. Poyarkova, G. V. Kudrina, and L. A. Korystina
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
Received April 5, 2011
Abstract—Surfactant properties exhibited on the solution–air phase boundary by substances prepared from
sunﬂ ower-seed oil production wastes were studied. The styrene polymerization rate in the presence of the
synthesized emulsiﬁ er and of its mixtures with the mixed emulsiﬁ er used today for preparing latexes was estimated.
The physicochemical properties of the synthesized latexes were examined.
The problem of efﬁ cient reprocessing of production
wastes to obtain competitive products is topical for all
industrially developed countries. However, despite im-
portance and economical advisability of complete waste
reprocessing, their useful utilization is still below the
With the growth of the oil-and-fat production in Rus-
sia, efﬁ cient reprocessing of its wastes becomes particu-
larly urgent. The main waste formed in the step of alkali
reﬁ ning (neutralization) of vegetable oils is soapstock
consisting of fats, fatty acids, their salts (soaps), phos-
pholipids, dyeing substances, etc. .
Today up to 150000 t of soapstocks is formed annu-
ally. These substances, as a rule, do not ﬁ nd efﬁ cient use,
although they could be a practically inexhaustible source
for preparing emulsiﬁ ers.
Surfactants play a signiﬁ cant role in polymeric com-
pounds, ensuring efﬁ cient emulsiﬁ cation, dispersion,
plasticization, cross-linking, and control of rheological
and other properties of these systems.
The most widely used representatives of ionic surfac-
tants are substances based on saturated and unsaturated
higher carboxylic acids and their salts. They are known
to be compulsory components of formulations for latex
synthesis in emulsion polymerization of unsaturated
monomers . Furthermore, in synthetic rubber (SR)
industry, surfactants are used as activators of rubber stock
vulcanization, as promoters of the adhesion of rubber–
metal cord systems, as technologically active additives to
rubbers, and as antiadhesives for mother rubber stocks.
Traditional raw materials for preparing surfactants
are natural fats and oils, which were replaced by petro-
chemical products in the middle of the XX century. How-
ever, because of difﬁ cult availability of many petroleum
products, surfactant producers again turned to vegetable
raw materials (castor, rapeseed, sunﬂ ower-seed, olive,
cottonseed oils; by-products and wastes from vegetable
In this study we examined the possibility of using
an emulsiﬁ er prepared by saponiﬁ cation of soapstock,
a waste from sunﬂ ower-seed oil production, in the syn-
thesis of latexes.
The investigation objects were the soapstock formed
by reprocessing of vegetable oils in the reﬁ ning step
and its potassium salts. As reference samples we used
emulsiﬁ ers used today at plants for synthetic rubber
production: potassium soap of disproportionated rosin
(Ediskan 5600) and potassium soap of palm oil (Prifac
7908), taken in amounts of 4.1 and 1.5 wt %, respectively,
Oil extraction shop of the plant of EFKO Group of Companies,
Alekseevka, Belgorod oblast, Russia.