Possible involvement of DNA breaks in epigenetic regulation of cell differentiation

Possible involvement of DNA breaks in epigenetic regulation of cell differentiation The review summarizes the authors’ and literature data on accumulation of DNA breaks in differentiating cells. Large 50-kb free DNA fragments were observed by several research teams in non-apoptotic insect, mammal, and plant cells. More intense DNA breakage was observed during maturation of spermatides, embryo development, and differentiation of myotubes, epidermal cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. In general, accumulation of DNA breaks in differentiating cells cannot be attributed to a decrease in the DNA repair efficiency. Poly(ADP)ribose synthesis often follows the DNA breakage in differentiating cells. We hypothesize that DNA fragmentation is an epigenetic tool for regulating the differentiation process. Scarce data on localization of the differentiation-associated DNA breaks indicate their preferable accumulation in specific DNA sequences including the nuclear matrix attachment sites. The same sites are degraded at early stages of apoptosis. Recent data on non-apoptotic function of caspases provide more evidence for possible existence of a DNA breakage mechanism in differentiating cells, resembling the initial stage of apoptosis. Excision of methylated cytosine and recombination are other possible explanations of the phenomenon. Elucidation of mechanisms of differentiation-induced DNA breaks appears to be a prospective research direction. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Genetics Springer Journals

Possible involvement of DNA breaks in epigenetic regulation of cell differentiation

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Publisher
Nauka/Interperiodica
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Subject
Biomedicine; Human Genetics; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Microbial Genetics and Genomics
ISSN
1022-7954
eISSN
1608-3369
D.O.I.
10.1134/S1022795407050018
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The review summarizes the authors’ and literature data on accumulation of DNA breaks in differentiating cells. Large 50-kb free DNA fragments were observed by several research teams in non-apoptotic insect, mammal, and plant cells. More intense DNA breakage was observed during maturation of spermatides, embryo development, and differentiation of myotubes, epidermal cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. In general, accumulation of DNA breaks in differentiating cells cannot be attributed to a decrease in the DNA repair efficiency. Poly(ADP)ribose synthesis often follows the DNA breakage in differentiating cells. We hypothesize that DNA fragmentation is an epigenetic tool for regulating the differentiation process. Scarce data on localization of the differentiation-associated DNA breaks indicate their preferable accumulation in specific DNA sequences including the nuclear matrix attachment sites. The same sites are degraded at early stages of apoptosis. Recent data on non-apoptotic function of caspases provide more evidence for possible existence of a DNA breakage mechanism in differentiating cells, resembling the initial stage of apoptosis. Excision of methylated cytosine and recombination are other possible explanations of the phenomenon. Elucidation of mechanisms of differentiation-induced DNA breaks appears to be a prospective research direction.

Journal

Russian Journal of GeneticsSpringer Journals

Published: May 24, 2007

References

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