ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 496−499. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © P. V. Nikolaev, E.P. Konstantinova, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 505−508.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Possibilities for Controlling the Oxygen Balance
and Composition of Fire-Extinguishing Aerosol Generated
by Epoxy Polymer Solid Fuel Elements
in Means for Fireﬁ ghting
P. V. Nikolaev and E. P. Konstantinova
Ivanovo State University of Chemical Technology, pr. Sheremetevskii 7, Ivanovo, 153000 Russia
Received February 25, 2014
Abstract—The oxygen balance of oligomer homologs of epoxy–4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol oligomers and of
polymeric materials based on them was calculated. The use of oligomeric ﬁ re retardants in epoxy solid fuel elements
of aerosol-generating means for ﬁ reﬁ ghting was substantiated. Heat-curable oligoether phosphates were suggested
for fabricating solid fuel elements with increased content of the dispersed phase in the ﬁ re-extinguishing aerosol.
Polymeric materials, as a rule, are readily com-
bustible and release toxic substances in the course of
combustion. On the other hand, speciﬁ cally polymers
are the main components of the modern means for
ﬁ reﬁ ghting. Among automatic means for ﬁ reﬁ ghting,
aerosol generators exhibit particular performance. An
example is Doping-2 ﬁ re-extinguishing aerosol genera-
tor. The main device in the generator design, ensuring
the efﬁ ciency of ﬁ reﬁ ghting with an aerosol, is a solid
fuel element (SFE) [1, 2].
SFE is actually a product of processing of oligo-
meric binders into a polymer ﬁ lled with target additives.
Polymeric materials based on reactive (thermosetting)
oligomers are prepared by chemical curing of a composite
containing, along with the main binder (oligomer), also
a curing agent and components ensuring the aerosol
performance. The aerosol, in turn, is generated by SFE
SFEs are fabricated most frequently from epoxy and
phenolic oligomers, which can be used both in the liquid
and in the solid states in combination with cross-linking
curing agents. Aerosol ﬁ reﬁ ghting formulations (PAS-
11-8, Е-1) based on liquid low-molecular-weight epoxy
oligomers of grades ED-20 and ED-5 are the most widely
used . Such aerosol means for ﬁ reﬁ ghting contain
a polymeric binder formed by the epoxy oligomer, curing
agent, and plasticizer and oxidants (nitrates or perchlo-
rates). The oxidants control the SFE combustibility.
Oxygen-containing curing agents  and phosphate
ﬁ re-retardant curing agents [4–7] are of much interest
for fabricating epoxy SFEs. Still more attractive are oli-
goether phosphates , whose use as hot-curable binders
does not require introduction of curing agents into the
The SFE combustion rate should be high, ensuring
ejection of a concentrated aerosol in one portion. The
efﬁ ciency of ﬂ ame suppression in this process depends
on the volume of the inert water vapor–gas dispersion
О) and on the degree of dispersity
of the solid phase in the ﬁ re-extinguishing aerosol .
The solid phase of the aerosol contains carbon par-
ticles (coke) whose formation is catalyzed by the ﬁ re-
retardant element, phosphorus, contained in terminal
fragments and recurrent units of oligoether phosphates
(OEPs) formed by reaction of polyaddition in the system
of 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol–epoxy oligomer with
orthophosphoric acid (Scheme 1).