ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2012, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 310–320. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2012.
Original Russian Text © O.A. Radchenko, I.A. Chereshnev, A.V. Petrovskaya, 2012, published in Genetika, 2012, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 361–371.
Gill, 1884 and
bert, 1890 are the largest genera of the subfamily Lyco
dinae and the family Zoarchidae as a whole.
includes 59 species and is only slightly
smaller than the largest species of the subfamily,
(62 species). The number of species recog
is much lower (13). This genus is
the fourth in the number of species among 40 genera
of Lycodinae [1–7].
has the largest distribution
range among the family Zoarcidae, and the suborder
Zoarcoidei as a whole. Representatives of this genus
are found in all Far Eastern seas of Russia, at the oce
anic sides of Japanese and Kuril archipelagos, in
Kamchatka, Commander Islands, Aleut Islands,
along the Pacific coasts of North and South Americas,
on the coast of Antarctica, as well as in the northern
Atlantic, and in the neighboring waters of the Polar
basin. Two isolated parts of the range are located
around the New Zealand and the Kerguelen Island
(Kerguelen Plateau) [1: Fig. 198].
distribution coincides with the range
only in northern and southern parts of the
Pacific Ocean, and near Antarctica [1: Fig. 197].
The representatives of both genera are found at
greatly variable depths. Specifically,
live at the depths from 0 to 2225 m, and
fish, at the depths from 107 to 5320 m. However, in
general, these fish inhabit great depths (bathyal and
abyssal zones of seas and oceans). They are either meso
) or bottomdwelling (
fish. In particular, in
two groups of species
(life forms) are recognized relative to the habitation
zones, including the bathyal group, living at the depths
from 800 to 1500 m, and abyssal group, living at the
depths from 3120 to 4070 m. The boundary between
the depths lies along the isobath close to 3000 m.
Although bathyal and abyssal groups of species differ
in some morphological traits, in
mediate species are recognized, which are distin
guished relative to the habitation depths, as well as to
morphological traits [1, 2, 8–12]. In addition, rela
tively recently two new
. These species are distinguished by the absence
of pelvic fins, which is an extremely rare feature in this
genus, since all other species have these fins.
Similar life forms were described in
two groups of species, with short and long gill rakers, were
distinguished. These groups differ in the gill raker sizes
and configuration, as well as in specific features of ceph
alic seismosensory system (CSS) [15, 16].
Phylogenetic relationships and position of
in the system of subfamily
remain obscure. In the revision of the fam
ily Zoarcidae, Anderson  did not discuss phylogeny
due to the absence of reliable morpho
logical traits, lacking parallel variation (homoplasy).
However, closeness of this genus to
was noted. According to Anderson,
should be placed close to
group. In addition to the already
mentioned, this group contains the genus
. Moreover, grouping of
Position of the Genera
in the Family Zoarcidae (Perciformes: Zoarcoidei) Inferred
from Molecular Genetic Analysis
O. A. Radchenko, I. A. Chereshnev, and A. V. Petrovskaya
Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Magadan, 685000 Russia
Received July 13, 2011
—Sequence variation of the mitochondrial COI, cytochrome
, and 16S RNA genes, as well as
nuclear RNF213 gene was examined in the genera
with the purpose of determi
nation of their positions in the system of the family Zoarcidae. It was demonstrated that the genus
was considerably closer to the generic group of Lycogramminae (
) than the genus
. However, on the phylogenetic trees both of these genera were
located in the clade of the subfamily Lycodinae. Genetic heterogeneity of the genus
by two species groups differing in distribution patterns (northeastern Pacific and Antarctic) and showing more
profound differences than the genera of subfamily Lycodinae, was demonstrated.