POROUS STRUCTURE FORMATION AND PHYSICOMECHANICAL
PROPERTIES OF SiC–C CARBON-CERAMIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
S. A. Kolesnikov,
G. M. Butyrin,
G. A. Kravetskii,
and T. D. Firsova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 10, pp. 37 – 44, October 2009.
Original article submitted April 15, 2009.
A study has been made of the effects of adding nanocrystalline zirconium dioxide powder stabilized by yt
trium oxide on the production and properties of a composite material based on zircon. It is found that the parti
cles of zirconium dioxide are located at the zircon grain boundaries and delay the consolidation of the zircon
matrix during sintering and zircon grain growth.
Keywords: nanocrystalline zirconium dioxide, ceramic composite material.
The previous communication  gives analyses of the
microstructures of composite materials in the SiC–C class.
They constitute a separate group of composite materials con-
taining ceramic matrices, which take up the tensile stresses,
raise the strength at the boundaries of the carbon phases, and
reduce the porosity. However, the excess of ceramic matrix
reduces the strength of the material and the resistance to ther-
mal stresses. Requirements are formulated for the porous
structure, and the region of best composition for the material
The general technological scheme for making compo
nents from constructional carbon-ceramic composite materi
als  implies that the formation of the total volume and ar
chitecture of the pore space in carbon-carbon ceramic mate
rials (CCCM) and carbon-ceramic composite materials
(CSCM) begins with the formation of components by the
processing of plastic materials and in the main occurs on car
bonization of the carbon plastic and the formation of a car
bon matrix in place of the original polymer.
The polymer binding agents used in producing these ma
terials have a percentage yield of coke up to 60%. The den
sity of the coke (about 1.8 g/cm
) is 1.5 times larger than that
of the solidified resin (about 1.2 g/cm
). After carbonization,
the layer of resin is replaced by a pore of volume about 40%
of the initial resin layer thickness. Therefore, the structure of
the polymer bonding agent layers determines the capillary
structure of the reinforcing filler, which is dependent on the
textile form and the content of the binding agent. Subse
quently, after carbonization, the pore structure in the car-
bon-carbon framework completely inherits the features of
the structure of the composite material (CM) in a plastic
state, and the filling of the pores in the carbon matrix (for ex-
ample on consolidation of the pyrocarbon) is dependent on
the structure change in the composite material throughout the
technological operation ranges.
Various methods of forming the blanks are used in accor-
dance with the item design and geometry . Details in the
form of bodies of rotation are preferred to be formed by
winding methods. Winding is the most productive and least
laborious technological technique. In the winding, the rein
forcing filaments may be placed in such a way that they coin
cide with the geodesic lines on the surface. This provides
maximum strength in exposure to internal pressure.
Components in the form of arts constructions are made
by impregnation under pressure with vacuum pumping of the
volatile products from polycondensation. Only impregnation
under pressure can provide components based on cross-
linked or strip three-dimensional reinforced frameworks.
That structure guarantees that the initial carbon plastic and
the carbon-carbon framework prevent exfoliation, which
substantially reduces the capacity of the material to resist
Components of complicated shape (ovals and cylindrical
and conical fragments combined in one blank) are made by
pressing with an elastic plunger in autoclaves. That method
can give high-grade components with flanges as part of the
whole. This substantially simplifies and cheapens the assem
bly of the components.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 5, 2009
1083-4877/09/5005-0376 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Graphite Research Institute Company.