1070-4272/05/7807-1197+2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1197!1198. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 7,
2005, pp. 1218!1219.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Kukharev, Stankevich, Klimenko, Lelyukh, Kukhareva, Timofeeva.
Polyvinyloxyalkylammonium Chlorides and Their Use
in Pressure Flotation of Lignin Sludge
B. F. Kukharev, V. K. Stankevich, G. R. Klimenko, T. F. Lelyukh,
V. A. Kukhareva, and S. S. Timofeeva
Favorskii Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, Irkutsk, Russia
Received March 2, 2005
Abstract-Polyvinyloxyalkylammonium chlorides were synthesized in up to 82% yields by alkylation of
monoethanolamine polyvinyl ether with higher alkyl chlorides. The suitability of the resulting polyvinyloxy-
alkylammonium chlorides for treatment of lignin-containing wastewater by pressure flotation was tested.
The suitability of water-soluble polymers for
wastewater treatment is well known . One of seri-
ous environmental problems in pulp and paper in-
dustry is more efficient exploitation of the acting
complex facilities for wastewater treatment to remove
such a large-capacity waste as lignin. Modern tech-
nology of wastewater treatment to remove lignin con-
sists in flotation of lignin sludge with polyacrylamide
In this work we synthesized polyvinyloxyalkylam-
monium chlorides from monoethanolamine polyvinyl
ether and tested them as flotation agents in pressure
flotation of lignin sludge.
Monoethanolamine polyvinyl ether I, prepared by
polymerization of monoethanolamine vinyl ether ,
was alkylated with equimolar amount of dodecyl
chloride II or hexadecyl chloride III. The resulting
polyvinyloxyalkylammonium chlorides IV and V
were isolated by reprecipitation:
3(CH 3CH) 3
3(CH 3CH) 3
3(CH 3CH) 3
3(CH 3CH) 3
where n =6!9; R = C
The flotation properties of polyvinyloxyalkylam-
monium chlorides IV and V were studied with real
lignin sludge currently treated at the Baikal Pulp and
Paper Combine (BPPC).
The results of our experiments are presented in the
table. It is seen that changing from polyacrylamide to
polyvinyloxyalkylammonium chlorides, even in a con-
centration by a factor of 1.3 lower, allows the flota-
tion rate to be increased by a factor of 1.8!2.5. Fur-
thermore, the wastewater treatment efficiency is im-
proved as regards both the color index (by 5.2!5.7%)
and the content of suspended matter (by 3! 6.5%). At
identical concentrations of these reagents, the flotation
rate increases by a factor of 2.37!2.75, and the waste-
water treatment efficiency, by 6.5! 6.8 and 6.5!11.3%
for the color index and the content of suspended
chloride IV. To a solution of 87 g (1 mol of mono-
meric units) of monoethanolamine polyvinyl ether I
with a weight-average molecular weight of 720 in
500 ml of isopropyl alcohol, 204.8 g (1 mol) of
dodecyl chloride was added, and the resulting mixture
was refluxed for 16 h. The solution was cooled, and
then petroleum ether was added until the polymer
ceased to precipitate. The resulting polymer was iso-
lated and vacuum-dried; 239.4 g (82%) of polymer IV
was obtained as a viscous dark-brown resin.
Found, %: C 65.31, H 11.03, Cl 12.44, N 4.52.
Calculated, %: C 65.84, H 11.74, Cl 12.15, N 4.80.
chloride V. Similar to IV, 87 g of monoethanolamine
polyvinyl ether I and 260.9 g of hexadecyl chloride