ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2012, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 818–827. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © L.I. Alekseeva, I.V. Gruzdev, 2012, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2012, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 771–780.
Plants of the family Laminaceae belonging to the
are popular in traditional medicine of
many countries and nations as a source of valuable
crude drug. For instance, in the case of acute and
chronic bronchitis, leaf extracts are prescribed as
expectorant and analgesic. In medicine and perfum
are widely used.
Many thyme species show antimicrobial, antiinflam
matory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, spasmolytic, and anti
nematodal activities . Traditionally, the plants of the
are used as a source of essential oils.
It is known that essential oils perform numerous
functions: they play an allelopathic role, ensure
defense against parasites, and attract insects. Some
monoterpene compounds account for defense against
herbivorous animals . For instance, myrcene,
landrene efficiently scare away herbivorous animals.
In addition, essential oils protect plants against UV
and visible light.
The content of essential oils depends on edaphic
factors of the locality and climatic conditions of plant
vegetation . The most important environmental
factor is temperature because plants do not have
mechanisms of its regulation. Effect of extreme envi
ronmental conditions, including low temperature, on
biosynthesis and ratio between the components of
essential oil are poorly investigated.
The aim of this work was to look into the effect of
abiotic conditions on polymorphism of essential oils
in thyme species growing in European NorthEast
part of Russia and Ural.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples of plant material (Table 1) were taken in
the stage of active flowering and dried to the airdry
state. Essential oil was extracted from airdry material
by hydrodistillation. The sample of 50 g was put in a
2L flask, covered with 1 L of water, and brought up to
boiling. One distillation lasted for 3 h.
Essential oil was analyzed using a Trace DSQ chro
matographmass spectrometer (Thermo); mode of
operation: ionization by electron impact; electron
energy was 70 eV; range from 50 to 650 atomic mass
units. Column thermostat was programmed from
(4 min) to
at a rate of
tion was performed on a TR5MS quartz capillary col
umn (Thermo) 30 m
m. Carrier gas
was helium with purity of 99.99%. The flow rate of carrier
gas was 0.6 mL/min, split ratio 1 : 50, vaporizer temper
ature was 280
C, detector temperature – 200
spectra of essential oil components were interpreted
using Xcalibur Data System (v. 1.4 SR1) software and
NIST 05 mass spectra library (v. 2.0, 220000 com
pounds). A compound was considered identified only
if the coefficient of coincidence of its mass spectrum
with library data was no less than 90% (Table 2).
Polymorphism of Essential Oils in Thyme Species Growing
in European Part of NorthEast Russia and Ural
L. I. Alekseeva and I. V. Gruzdev
Institute of Biology, Komi Research Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kommunisticheskaya ul. 28, Syktyvkar, 167610 Russia;
Received June 9, 2011
—Essential oils of thyme species growing in the European part of NorthEast Russia and Ural were
shown to contain azulene,
methylene cycloheptane, eudesm7(11)en4ol, and isoaromadendrene epoxide. Detection in the plants of
of uncharacteristic compounds could be accounted for by the beginning of investigation of
earlier unexplored species or by the biosynthesis of these compounds induced by environmental conditions.
All species of the genus
growing in the European part of NorthEast Russia and Ural (
T. talijevii, T. paucifolius, T. guberlinensis,
) belong to nonphenolic chemotype character
istic of the way of their adaptation to low temperatures. In three species (
T. talijevii, T. paucifolius
), essential oils were rich in bicyclic sesquiterpenes.
, essential oils, chromatographymass spectrometry