ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2017, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 244−251. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2017.
Original Russian Text © Yu.A. Kadykova, N.L. Levkina,
2017, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2017, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 223−230.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Polycondensation Procedure for Compounding
the Components in Production
of Phenol–Formaldehyde Polymer Matrix Composites
Yu. A. Kadykova* and N. L. Levkina
Engels Institute of Technology, Branch of Saratov State Technical University, Engels, Saratov oblast, Russia
Received February 6, 2017
Abstract—The choice of parameters of the polycondensation procedure for combining the components in forming
polymer matrix composites based on ﬁ brous and dispersed ﬁ llers and phenol–formaldehyde resin is substantiated.
The materials formed using the polycondensation procedure for compounding the components considerably sur-
pass in the physicochemical and mechanical properties the composites prepared using the traditional technology.
Phenol–formaldehyde resins occupy a prominent
place among binders that are cured by the polyconden-
sation mechanism. Such resins are mainly produced
from synthetic phenol and formaldehyde taken as aque-
ous solution (Formalin).
The use of the polycondensation procedure for com-
pounding the components (PPCC), involving impregna-
tion of dispersed and ﬁ brous ﬁ llers with a mixture of the
monomers (phenol and Formalin), followed by synthesis
of the polymer in the structure and on the surface of the
ﬁ ller [1–11], allows the physicochemical and strength
characteristics of the polymer matrix composites (PMCs)
to be improved and reduces the labor and power con-
sumption, the number of process steps, and the environ-
mental impact of the production process as a whole.
In PPCC, the ﬁ ller is introduced directly into the
polymer in the step of its synthesis. The solid phase of
the ﬁ ller is present in the zone of the occurrence of the
polycondensation and exerts a direct or indirect effect on
the reaction course. The resulting material is a composite
ready to processing, in which the afﬁ nity of the polymer
matrix for the ﬁ ller is ensured by chemical and physical
interaction. This approach allows the characteristics
of the materials to be varied in a wide range and to be
preset directly in the polymer synthesis step.
When dispersed and ﬁ brous ﬁ llers containing
reactive groups on their surface are introduced into a
monomer mixture in the synthesis step, the access of
monomers to these groups is facilitated, and a speciﬁ c
structure of polymer matrix composites with particular
properties can be formed.
The phenol–formaldehyde binder was prepared from
phenol and formaldehydre (40% aqueous solution), with
NaOH used as a catalyst.
The following ﬁ llers were used: UKN/5000
structural carbon thread (CT), BS13-400 glass thread
(GT), basalt thread (BT), Nd–Fe–B alloy, and barium
The structure of the developed materials was studied
using a Hitachi HU12 A scanning electron microscope
and a scanning tunnel microscope. The surfaces of
nonconducting samples (basalt- and glass-reinforced
plastics) were coated with a 10-nm Al layer by thermal
sputtering of the metal in a vacuum to make the surfaces
conducting for SEM studies. The conductivity of the
carbon-reinforced plastic sample was sufﬁ cient for
analysis without depositing a conducting layer.