systems. The advantages of heterogeneous metal catalysts include easy separation, possibility of reuse, less contami- nation of the metal ions in the products, some environmen- tal considerations and their possible use in continuous flow CHO O O O PANI-FeCl R NH processes for the practical applications. + + H N NH 2 2 CH CN 3 N O The key consideration of the development of hetero- Reflux, 24 h R = OEt, Me geneous catalyst involves anchoring the active transition 19 examples 65-90 % Y metal ion on the solid surface. One of the approaches of loading catalyst on solid support involves attaching a suit- Keywords Polyaniline · PANI–FeCl · Heterogeneous able ligand on the adequate surface and then exposing it to catalysis · Biginelli reaction metal ions to form heterogenized complex of the catalysis [1–5]. However, the activity of the metal complex needs to be retained in order to effectively perform the role of the catalyst. Organic polymers are often selected as supports to load the metal ions to prepare heterogeneous catalysts. The Electronic supplementary material The online version of this development in the area of polymer chemistry has offered article (doi:10.1007/s10562-017-2139-9) contains supplementary wide variety of polymeric materials which
Catalysis Letters – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 20, 2017
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