Current concepts are outlined regarding the chloroplast effects on expression of the nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins. The major types of plastid-generated signals are considered. The signal molecules are shown to include the reactive oxygen species, the redox state of the components of photosynthetic electron transport, in particular plastoquinones, the redox-active molecules of plastid stroma, such as thioredoxin and glutathione, and also the intermediates of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (Mg-protoporphyrin IX and its monomethyl ester). The sophisticated regulatory network is emphasized as a channel matching up the expression of nuclear and plastid genes. The plastid-generated signals help plants adapt to the changing and frequently adverse environmental conditions.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 24, 2007
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