PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR STUDYING
THE MINERAL COMPOSITION AND PORE STRUCTURE
FOR THE ARGILLACEOUS PART ZIRCON-ILMENITE ORE
E. S. Abdrakhimova
and V. Z. Abdrakhimov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 1, pp. 10 – 16, January 2011.
Original article submitted September 25, 2010.
It is established that the argillaceous part zircon-ilmenite ore gravitation tailings (ZIG) is a refractory clay, but
it has a complex mineral composition, including in contrast to traditional refractory clays more than ten miner-
als and an increased amount of Fe
(>5%). The main clay mineral of ZIG is kaolinite, which is poorly crys-
tallized. An increase in ZIG ceramic specimen firing temperature to 1300°C promotes pore size uniformity.
Keywords: argillaceous part zircon-ilmenite ore gravitation tailings (ZIG), mineral composition, ele-
ment-by-element chemical composition, kaolinite, montmorillonite, pore structure, method of diffusion
small-angle x-ray beam scattering (SAXS method).
The fundamental possibility is demonstrated in [1 – 10]
of the use of the argillaceous part zircon-ilmenite ore gravita-
tion tailings (ZIG) in the production of ceramic materials, but
within these works there is no provision of the mineral com-
position and pore structure of the argillaceous component.
The aim of this work is to study the ZIG mineral composition
and pore structure by contemporary analysis methods.
ZIG, in contrast to traditional clays, exhibits a more uni-
form composition since it is prepared by the wet gravitation
method. It is well known that kaolin is enriched by wet gravi-
tation and dry methods: here the first method is more effec-
tive [11 – 13]. In addition, recovery of ZIG is not necessary
in preliminary stripping work and on blending. The average
chemical composition of ZIG is, wt.%: SiO
6.33, MgO 1.22, CaO 1.70, R
O 1.08; Dm
Results of spectral elemental analysis, performed in a
spectrograph, showed presence of titanium and zirconium in
ZIG (Fig. 1). With respect to overall content (Al
ZIG relates to semi-acid materials with a high content of col-
ored oxides (Fe
> 3%), with respect to the content of par-
ticles less than 0.001 ´ 10
m it relates to a fine raw mate
rial, concerning plasticity it relates to a medium nonplastic
raw material, for sensitivity towards drying it relates to me-
dium sensitivity, and for refractoriness it relates to high-melt-
ing (refractoriness 1500 – 1550°C); with respect to caking
capacity it is a strongly caking raw material in the range
120 – 150°C.
In order to estimate the size of test argillaceous material
analysis was performed in a MIN-8M metallurgical micro-
scope at a magnification of 200. Clay particles were dis-
solved in alcohol, applied to a glass and photographed. In or-
der to determine precise particle dimensions several areas of
an object were recorded. The average particle size was
0.001 – 0.005 mm: for comparison the particle size for
kaolinite, montmorillonite and hydromica were correspond-
ingly3–5,upto1,and1–3mm [14, 15].
Under a microscope in an immersion preparation
kaolinite and montmorillonite are observed in the form of
colorless finely dispersed particles with N
= 1.560 – 1.587;
the size of particles is 1 – 5 mm. Results of physicochemical
studies showed that argillaceous minerals in ZIG are mainly
kaolinite. In a thermogram there is clearly expressed pres-
ence of kaolinite endothermic effect with a maximum at
580°C, but there is also a comparatively small effect of
montmorillonite at 140°C (Fig. 2). The exothermic effect
with a maximum at 425°C is explained by oxidation and
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 1, May, 2011
1083-4877/11/05201-0001 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
S. P. Korolev Samara State Aerospace University.
Samara State Architectural Building University.