ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 11, pp. 1306–1313. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2007.
Original Russian Text © A.A. Vilnet, I.A. Milyutina, N.A. Konstantinova, M.S. Ignatov, A.V. Troitsky, 2007, published in Genetika, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 11, pp. 1556–1564.
Liverworts represent the most ancient group of land
plants. Natural classiﬁcation of this group is extremely
complicated due to the low number of anatomical and
morphological characters available for comparative
(Dumort.) Dumort. s. str. is one of
most polymorphic and problematic for identiﬁcation
liverwort genus, especially in Arctic. The concept of
some species and intraspeciﬁc taxa is controversial.
Many taxa were described relatively recently. Further-
more, they are often known only from the type locali-
ties, or several more localities [1–4]. As a result, liver-
wort variation and phylogenetic relationships are
scarcely studied. At present, a gradual transition
towards more narrow concept of the genus
is observed. Contrary to the ideas of Schuster on the
genus size , many modern authors distinguish other
(Muell. Frib.) H. Buch and
Loeske [5–8]. Most Russian authors
share the ideas of Schljakov , who, following the
narrow concept of the genera suggested by Scandina-
vian researchers [9, 10], in addition to the above genera,
Buch) S. Arnell, and
H. Buch as isolated
genera. Furthermore, this author raises the subgenera
K. Müll. emend R. M. Schust. and
R. M. Schust. to the genus rank. Potemkin 
supports the recognition of
as a genus,
but with inclusion of the
into it with the
status of a section.
The arguments of the followers of either broad or
narrow concept of the genera, based on anatomical and
morphological characters, are brieﬂy discussed by
Bakalin . The existing arguments, however, are not
sufﬁciently conclusive to accept one or another concept
of the genera in
s. 1. Earlier, based on the
sequence data for the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA)
locus from the 47 species of the family Lophoziaceae,
it was demonstrated that the “narrow” concept of the
genera in this family was, probably, more correct .
In the present study, we tried to evaluate phylogenetic
relationships within the
s. str. and in related
taxa based on sequence analysis of the internal tran-
scribed spacer of nuclear rDNA (ITS1-2) and the
locus of cpDNA of a higher number of taxa of
s. str., as well as its close relatives,
MATERIALS AND METHODS
DNA was extracted from the plants
selected from the herbarium specimens of Polar–
Alpine Botanical Garden–Institute (KPABG) of Kola
Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences (table).
The analysis included 21 out of 33 taxa of the genus
s. str., indicated for the world , as well as
Phylogeny of the Genus
(Dumort.) Dumort. s. str.
Inferred from Nuclear and Chloroplast Sequences
ITS1-2 and TRNL-F
A. A. Vilnet
, I. A. Milyutina
, N. A. Konstantinova
, M. S. Ignatov
, and A. V. Troitsky
Polar–Alpine Botanical Garden–Institute of Kola Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kirovsk, 184236, Russia; e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Belozersky Institute of Physicochemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia;
Main Botanical Garden of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 127276 Russia; e-mail: email@example.com
Received October 6, 2006
—Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed for 21 taxa of
s. str. and the related genera,
based on combined nuclear ITS1-2 and chloroplast
DNA sequences. The trees were character-
ized by similar topology. It was demonstrated that the genus
s. str. was monophyletic, excluding
, which deserved isolation into a distinct cryptic genus. The species distribution among the clades
disagreed with the sections distinguished based on anatomical and morphological data. The relationships within
were consistent with the sectioning of the genus, based on morphological characters.
Analysis of molecular data provided more precise deﬁnition of the systematic position of a number of taxa.
A low level of genetic divergence of geographically distant forms was demonstrated.