Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an internationally significant pathogen with a wide host range, vectored by thrips. We have studied the sequence variation and evolutionary mechanisms at play in parts of the L, M and S subgenomes of 23 New Zealand TSWV isolates collected between 1992 and 2009, aiming to identify the possible geographic origins of isolates. Maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses of New Zealand and overseas TSWV isolates placed the L and M subgenome sequences of two isolates (MAF04 and PFR04) in distinct clades composed primarily of Korean, Japanese and Chinese isolates, in contrast to the remaining 21 isolates, which clustered with a cosmopolitan group of isolates. The nucleocapsid (N) gene sequences of MAF04 and PFR04 plus MAF02 clustered with Japanese isolates. Consequently, we postulate that these isolates may represent a distinct incursion into New Zealand, but we do not have enough evidence to indicate an incursion pathway. Alternately, these isolates may have arrived with an incursion that included a mixture of TSWV isolates of diverse international origins. The sequences of four of the TSWV isolates contained a number of sites with a mixture of nucleotides, suggesting that these isolates either consisted of several sequence variants or were from plants with mixed infections. One isolate (MAF02) was shown to be a either a reassortant or an S subgenome recombinant. Large amounts of low-level polymorphism were detected with low amino acid change fixation rates (purifying selection). Negative selection was indicated at four amino acid sites in the New Zealand TSWV N gene sequences.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: May 1, 2014
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