Eight strains of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) were isolated and identified in this study, from diseased pigeon flocks suspected to be infected with PPMV-1 in China between 2010 and 2012. These PPMV-1 isolates were purified using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo cells before full-length genomic sequencing. The complete genome of these isolates contained 15,192 nucleotides, similar to those of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains in genotypes V–XI, with the gene order 3’-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5’. A six-nucleotide insertion was found to be located in the 5’ non-coding region of the nucleoprotein gene in our eight PPMV-1 strains when compared with those of genotypes I, II, III, IV and V. The cleavage site of the fusion protein was 112 RRQKRF 117 , a feature generally associated with virulent NDV strains. The structural proteins were in accordance with those of other PPMV-1 strains, with the exception of the W protein of pigeon/CHINA/LJL/100605. The length of the W protein was 227 amino acids, in common with PPMV-1 strains, whereas that of pigeon/CHINA/LJL/100605 was only 181 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the genomic sequences and sequences of the fusion gene, revealed that our eight isolates should be classified as class II genotype VIb NDVs. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the strain pigeon/CHINA/LLN/110713 is similar to strains isolated abroad, but it was isolated in China, which implies that it may have been introduced to China from overseas. Differences between the Chinese and foreign strains were identified in three regions (nucleotide positions 1632–2229, 3023–3310 and 6103–6439). In addition, the values of ICPI and MDT demonstrated that PPMV-1 isolates were mesogenic or lentogenic, and virulence studies showed that these PPMV-1 strains were non-pathogenic in chickens, but they induced the generation of antibodies in vivo .
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2013
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