Phreatic eruptions and deformation of Ioto Island (Iwo-jima), Japan, triggered by deep magma injection

Phreatic eruptions and deformation of Ioto Island (Iwo-jima), Japan, triggered by deep magma... On Ioto Island (Iwo-jima), 44 phreatic eruptions have been recorded since 1889, when people began to settle there. Four of these eruptions, after the beginning of continuous observation by seismometers in 1976, were accompanied by intense seismic activity and rapid crustal deformation beforehand. Other eruptions on Ioto were without obvious crustal activities. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of phreatic eruptions on Ioto. Regular geodetic surveys and continuous GNSS observations show that Ioto intermittently uplifts at an abnormally high rate. All of the four eruptions accompanied by the precursors took place during intermittent uplifts. The crustal deformation before and after one of these eruptions revealed that a sill-like deformation source in the shallow part of Motoyama rapidly inflated before and deflated after the beginning of the eruption. From the results of a seismic array and a borehole survey, it is estimated that there is a layer of lava at a depth of about 100–200 m, and there is a tuff layer about 200–500 m beneath it. The eruptions accompanied by the precursors probably occurred due to abrupt boiling of hot water in hydrothermal reservoirs in the tuff layer, sealed by the lava layer and triggered by intermittent uplift. For the eruptions without precursors, the hydrothermal systems are weakly sealed by clay or probably occurred on the same principle as a geyser because phreatic eruptions had occurred beforehand and hydrostatic pressure is applied to the hydrothermal reservoirs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Earth, Planets and Space Springer Journals

Phreatic eruptions and deformation of Ioto Island (Iwo-jima), Japan, triggered by deep magma injection

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Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by The Author(s)
Subject
Earth Sciences; Earth Sciences, general; Geology; Geophysics/Geodesy
eISSN
1880-5981
D.O.I.
10.1186/s40623-018-0811-y
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

On Ioto Island (Iwo-jima), 44 phreatic eruptions have been recorded since 1889, when people began to settle there. Four of these eruptions, after the beginning of continuous observation by seismometers in 1976, were accompanied by intense seismic activity and rapid crustal deformation beforehand. Other eruptions on Ioto were without obvious crustal activities. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of phreatic eruptions on Ioto. Regular geodetic surveys and continuous GNSS observations show that Ioto intermittently uplifts at an abnormally high rate. All of the four eruptions accompanied by the precursors took place during intermittent uplifts. The crustal deformation before and after one of these eruptions revealed that a sill-like deformation source in the shallow part of Motoyama rapidly inflated before and deflated after the beginning of the eruption. From the results of a seismic array and a borehole survey, it is estimated that there is a layer of lava at a depth of about 100–200 m, and there is a tuff layer about 200–500 m beneath it. The eruptions accompanied by the precursors probably occurred due to abrupt boiling of hot water in hydrothermal reservoirs in the tuff layer, sealed by the lava layer and triggered by intermittent uplift. For the eruptions without precursors, the hydrothermal systems are weakly sealed by clay or probably occurred on the same principle as a geyser because phreatic eruptions had occurred beforehand and hydrostatic pressure is applied to the hydrothermal reservoirs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Journal

Earth, Planets and SpaceSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 12, 2018

References

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