The present study deals with the phenotypic adaptation of tonoplast fluidity in the CAM plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana to changes in growth temperature. Tonoplast fluidity was characterized by measuring fluorescence depolarization in membranes labeled with fluorescent fatty acid analogues and by following formation of eximeres in membranes labeled by eximere-forming fluorophores. With both techniques it was found that exposure of the plants to higher growth temperature compared with the control decreased the fluidity of the tonoplast while exposure to lower growth temperature caused the opposite. Three hours of high temperature treatment (raised from 25°C to 35°C; ``heat shock'') were sufficient to decrease the tonoplast fluidity to roughly the same extent as growth under high temperature for 30 days. The phenotypic response of tonoplast fluidity to changes in growth temperature was found only in the complete membrane, not however in the lipid matrix deprived of the membrane proteins. Heat treatments of the plants decreased the lipid/protein ratio while exposure to low temperature (for 30 days) increased it. Heat treatments led to a decrease in the percentage of linolenic acid (C18:3) and linoleic acid (C18:2), heat shock and low temperature treatments induced an increase in the percentage of linoleic acid (C18:3), with concomitant decrease in the percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2). However, in the case of heat shock, increase in linolenic acid concerned mainly monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, while with low temperature treatment linoleic acid increased in phosphatidylcholine. Both treatment of the plants with high and low temperature led to a slight decrease in the contribution of phosphatidylcholine and phosphoethanolamine to the total phospholipid content of the tonoplast. High-temperature treatment of the plants not only decreased the phospholipid/protein ratio in the tonoplast, but also led to the occurrence of a 35 kDa polypeptide in the tonoplast which cross-reacted with an antiserum against the tonoplast H+-ATPase holoenzyme. The important role of membrane proteins in bringing about the phenotypic rigidization of the tonoplast was mimicked by reconstitution experiments showing that incorporation of the proteins isolated from the tonoplast into phosphatidylcholine vesicles decreased the fluidity of this membrane system. As to be expected from the analyses in the natural membrane, the degree of this effect depended on the phospholipid/protein ratio.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 2, 2014
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